Al-Ghadir Sermon (Text)

Al-Ghadir Sermon (Text)

Ghadīr Sermon (Arabic: خطبة الغدير) is a sermon delivered by the Prophet (s) where he (s) introduced 'Ali (a) as the Wali (guardian) of Muslims. The prophet (s) delivered this sermon on Dhu l-Hijja 18 of 10/March 19, 632) on his return from Hajjat al-Wida' [Hajj of Farewell] in a place called Ghadir Khumm. Many Shi'a and Sunni scholars have narrated this sermon.

Al-Ghadir Sermon


Ghadīr Sermon (Arabic: خطبة الغدير) is a sermon delivered by the Prophet (s) where he (s) introduced 'Ali (a) as the Wali (guardian) of Muslims. The prophet (s) delivered this sermon on Dhu l-Hijja 18 of 10/March 19, 632) on his return from Hajjat al-Wida' [Hajj of Farewell] in a place called Ghadir Khumm. Many Shi'a and Sunni scholars have narrated this sermon.

Al-Ghadir sermon is one of the proofs Shi'a bring for the guardianship of Imam 'Ali (a) after the Prophet (s). Shi'a also support their claim with other proofs and evidences.

The Hadith al-Ghadir is a part of this sermon where the Prophet (s) says, "Anyone I am his master (Wali), then 'Ali (a) is his master."

Since, this phrase is narrated by more than 110 companions of the Prophet (s) and 84 Followers, it can be said that this hadith has been narrated as mutawatir (frequent).

'Abd al-Husayn Amini collected all the references for this sermon and the Hadith al-Ghadir from Sunni sources and published them together with all other supportive reasons for the event of Ghadir in 11 volumes in his book al-Ghadir.


Event of al-Ghadir

In 10/632, the Prophet (s) decided to go to Hajj. This Hajj was made in the last year of his life which was later called Hajjat al-Wida' (Farewell Hajj).[1] People were informed of the Prophet's (s) decision so that they would prepare to go on this journey.[2]

Many Muslims gathered in Medina to accompany the Prophet (s) for Hajj.[3] He exited Medina for Mecca on Dhu l-Qa'da 25th.[4]

Since Ramadan of that year, Imam Ali (a) had gone to Madhhij in Yemen for the battle with disbelievers.[5] After he (a) was gained victory and collected the booties, the Prophet (s) ordered him to join him in Mecca to perform Hajj rituals.[6]

On the Day of 'Arafa , the Prophet (s) delivered a sermon for the pilgrims of Hajj and reminded them of important issues including the importance of Muslims' blood and property, trust-keeping, prohibition of usury, women's rights, and prohibiting people of following Satan.[7]

After finishing Hajj rituals, Muslims exited Mecca and returned to their own states. On Dhu l-Hijja 18, the caravan of Hajj pilgrims arrived in Ghadir Khumm,[8] between Mecca and Medina, 5 km away from Juhfa where different routes separate from each other.[9] When the caravan arrived there, Jabra'il (Gabriel) revealed verses of 67 of the Qur'an 5 to the Prophet (s) and delivered him God's order to announce Wilaya (guardianship) of 'Ali (a) to all people.[10] Caravan was stopped by the order of the Prophet (s) and those who were behind joined them. After noon prayer, a pulpit was made and the Prophet (s) delivered a sermon in which he (s) told people that he (s) would soon depart them. He mentioned two precious things he would leave and trust people with and spoke about his Wilaya and priority over believers.[11] Then, he (s) raised 'Ali's (a) hand and said, "Anyone I am his master (Wali), then this 'Ali (a) is his master."[12] Then he (s) made du'as for 'Ali's (a) friends and cursed his enemies.[13] At that point, Hassan b. Thabit asked for permission and composed a poem about that event.[14] Then 'Umar b. al-Khattab congratulated 'Ali (a) for his position.[15]


Key Points

*    At the beginning of the sermon, the Prophet (s) praised God and for some minutes eloquently described God's attributes for people,
*    Mentioning God's order for announcing something important and the revelation of the Tabligh Verse,
*    The Prophet's (s) asking God to dispense him with that announcement due to his fear for the mischiefs of hypocrites and several comings of Jabra'il (Gabriel) for repeating God's order and promising the Prophet (s) that he (s) would be kept safe from the mischief of people,
*    Announcing that it was his last attendance in such a gathering of people and that Imamate of the Ummah would be upon 'Ali (a) and his descendants until the Judgment Day,
*    Saying that things the Prophet (s) mentioned as forbidden and things he (s) mentioned as permissible will remain so until the Judgment Day,
*    Mentioning the levels of 'Ali's (a) knowledge and merits,
*    Saying that denying Wilaya of 'Ali (a) would be an unforgivable sin forever,
*    Mentioning that anyone who questions the Prophet's (s) speech or any of Imams (a) would be just the same as disbelievers at the age of pre-Islam Ignorance,
*    Saying the historical statement of "whoever I am his master (Wali), then this 'Ali (a) is his master",
*    Repeating the Hadith al-Thaqalayn and mentioning the positions of the Qur'an and the Ahl al-Bayt (a) beside each other,
*    Emphasizing the succession and caliphate of 'Ali (a),
*    Making prayer for the friends of Imam 'Ali (a) and cursing his enemies, "O God, befriend his friends and be the enemy of his enemies",
*    Coming of Jabra'il (Gabriel) and announcing the perfection of religion (a part of verse 3 of Qur'an),
*    Emphasizing on the position of Imamate and heeding people not to envy Imam,
*    Mentioning the mischief of hypocrites,
*    Mentioning the end of Imamate with the Rising al-Mahdi (a), a descendant of Imam 'Ali (a),
*    Prohibiting people from following false Imams in future,
*    Ordering the audience to deliver the message of his speech in Ghadir Khum to others who were absent,
*    Enjoining people to friendship with the Ahl al-Bayt (a) and enmity with their enemies,
*    Mentioning about 20 sentences about Imam al-Mahdi (a) and his government,
*    Saying that the best of the good is to understand the Prophet's (s) word and to deliver it to others,
*    Mentioning other merits of Imam 'Ali (a) and ordering people to officially give allegiance to him as the Imam and successor of the Prophet (s),


References

This sermon in its complete form as mentioned above has been narrated in different ways in Shi'a historical and hadith references during centuries. These narrations are quoted from the Prophet (s) in either of three ways: Imam al-Baqir (a),[16] Hudhayfa b. Yaman,[17] Zayd b. Arqam.[18]

The text of the al-Ghadir sermon is mentioned in the books below:

*    Rawdat al-wa'izin
*    Al-Ihtijaj
*    Al-Yaqin
*    Nuzhat al-kiram
*    Al-Iqbal
*    Al-'Udad al-qawiyya
*    Al-Tahsin
*    Al-Sirat al-mustaqim
*    Nahj al-iman


Hadith al-Ghadir

Hadith al-Ghadir is a part of al-Ghadir sermon which is narrated in Shi'a sources and most of Sunni historical and hadith references during centuries. Their common feature is announcement of Imam 'Ali's (a) Wilaya and announcing him as the Wali of believers. Also, the statement of
"whoever I am his master, then this 'Ali (a) is his master"

is common among all of these different versions of reports about this occasion. The mentioned statement has become famous as the "Hadith al-Ghadir".

Direct Quotations

According to 'Allama Amini, this hadith has been narrated by:

*    Ahmad b. Hanbal from 40 chains of narration,
*    Ibn Jarir al-Tabari from 72 chains,
*    Jazri al-Muqri from 80 chains,
*    Ibn 'Uqda from 105 chains,
*    Abu Sa'id al-Sajistani from 120 chains,
*    Abu Bakr al-Ju'abi from 125 chains[19]
*    Hafiz Abu l-'Ala' al-'Attar al-Hamdani from 250 chains.[20]

Some Sunni scholars of Rijal and hadith, have considered the number of references for this hadith numerous and most of them have regarded it as Sahih (authentic) and Hasan (correct).[21] Among narrators of this hadith, about 90 ones are Companions of the Prophet (s) and 84 of them were Followers.

Indirect Quotations

In addition to direct quotations, some have narrated it from those who were present in the event of Ghadir Khumm. It was narrated by

*    Abu l-Tufayl from 30 people,[22]
*    'Amir b. Layli al-Ghifari from 17 people,[23]
*    'Umayra b. Sa'd from 12 people,[24]
*    Zayd b. Arqam from 16 people,[25]
*    Ziyad b. Abi Ziyad from 12 people,[26]
*    Zadhan Abi 'Umar from 13 people,[27]
*    'Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Layli from 12 people,[28]
*    'Abd Khayr and 'Amr Dhi Marra, and Habba al-'Arani from 12 people,[29]
*    Abu Hurayra, Anas, and Abu Sa'id from 9 people,[30]
*    Abu Qulaba from 12 people,[31]
*    Zayd b. Yathigh from 12 people[32]
*    Sa'id b. Wahb from 5 or 6 people.[33]


Research Sources for References of the al-Ghadir Sermon

*    Al-Tara'if[59]
*    'Abaqat al-anwar[60]
*    Bihar al-anwar[61]
*    Ithbat al-hudat[62]
*    Al-Ghadir[63]
*    Kashf al-muhim fi tariq khabar Ghadir Khumm[64]
*    'Awalim al-'ulum[65]
*    Nafahat al-azhar fi khulasat Abaqat al-anwar[66]

Criticisms about the References

Some have tried to cast doubts about this historical event including the following:

Weakness of the References

Despite the frequency of narration, multitude of references, and the many chains through which this hadith has been narrated, some Sunni scholars believe that this hadith cannot be regarded as Mutawatir (frequent) and Sahih (authentic).[67] Their justification is that most hadith narrators such as al-Bukhari and Muslim al-Nisaburi have not narrated it and some others including Abi Dawud and Abi Hatam al-Razi have considered it weak.[68]

Their doubt has been answered by many Sunni scholars such as al-Tirmidhi (d. 279/892),[69] al-Tahawi (d. 279/892),[70] Hakim al-Nisaburi (d. 405/1014),[71] Ibn Kathir (d. 774/1375),[72] Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani (d. 852/1448),[73] Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 974/1566)[74] have confirmed the authenticity of the references for this hadith. Moreover, there are many other direct and indirect narrations from the companions and the followers in historical and hadith references which prove the authenticity of the references of this hadith and the reason why al-Bukhari and Muslim did not narrate it must be studied separately, not in connection with their doubt for the references of this hadith.

Criticism about the Authenticity

Another criticism mentioned by critics of this hadith is that 'Ali (a) was not in Mecca to be able to attend in the event of Ghadir and he (a) has been doing his mission in Yemen;[75] while, the advocates of this hadith refer to Sunni sources which have mentioned that Imam 'Ali (a) had already returned to Mecca from Yemen and had participated in Hajj rituals of that year.[76]


Indication

Hadith al-Ghadir made the ground for many discussions. Imam 'Ali (a) and Ahl al-Bayt's (a) references to this hadith are among the first usage of this hadith. Also, Shi'a theologians referred to this hadith to prove the rights and priority of Imam 'Ali (a) for caliphate. According to Shi'a theological references, al-Shaykh al-Mufid was the first theologian who extensively benefited from this hadith in his arguments.[77] Al-Shaykh al-Tusi[78] and al-'Allama al-Hilli[79] also extensively benefited from this hadith in their arguments. Sunni theologians such as Fakhr al-Din al-Razi,[80] Qadi Iji,[81] al-Taftazani[82] and al-Jurjani[83] tried to answer Shi'a scholars and extensive discussions took place.

Sunni Viewpoint

Most Sunni scholars believe that the word "Mawla" (Arabic: مَولی) in this hadith does not mean "guardian" nor "prior in making decision for" and rather it means "friend and assistant". Scholars such as al-Taftazani,[84] Fakhr al-Din al-Razi,[85] Qadi Iji and al-Jurjani[86] claim that "Mawla" cannot mean "guardian" and "prior in making decision for".

They also argue that,

*    Firstly, in Arabic, the verbal form "Maf'al" (Arabic: مَفعَل) is not used for the meaning "Awla" (Arabic: أولی, prior).[87]

*    Secondly, if "Mawla" means "prior in making decision for", then we must be able to use them interchangeably; while for instance in this hadith, instead of the phrase "whoever I am his Mawla", grammatically, one cannot put "whoever I am his prior in making decision".[88]

In return, Shi'a scholars answered these arguments as follows,

*    Firstly, Sunni scholars themselves have admitted that "Mawla" has also been used as "prior in making decision for".[89] Scholars of literature such as Ghyath al-Taghlabi al-Akhtal (d. 90/709),[90] Abu l-Sha'tha' b. Ru'ba al-Sa'di al-'Ajaj (d. 90/709),[91] Abu Zakariyya Yahya b. Ziyad al-Farra' (d. 207/822),[92] Abu 'Ubayda (d. 209/824), al-Akhfash (d. 215/830) and al-Zajjaj (d. 311/923)[93] have confirmed this issue.

*    Secondly, the second problem mentioned above is not true because if a word is not used in the place of another, it does not mean that they does not have the same meaning; e. g. according to this justification, the word "Nasir" [assistant] which Sunni believe as one of the meanings of the word "Mawla" must be able to be used with the word "Mawla" interchangeably, but grammatically "Mawla" cannot be used in the place of "Nasir" so the two words could not have the same meaning.

*    Thirdly, using two synonyms interchangeably is correct if they fit in the context, whereas here they cannot be used interchangeably since "Nasir" is used with the article "Min", but "Mawla" is not.[94]

Shi'a Viewpoint

Shi'a believe that the word "Mawla" in this hadith means "Awla bi-l-tasarruf" ("prior in making decision for") and the same as the Prophet (s) was prior to Muslims' affairs in making decisions for them than themselves, Imam 'Ali (a) had the same priority. This opinion has two preconditions:

A) "Mawla" means "prior in making decision for";

B) There's a required connection between priority [over Muslims] in making decision for [them] on one hand, and imamate and caliphate on the other.[95]

Shi'a believe that there are contextual and situational references in this hadith which suggest that the word "Mawla" in this hadith just and only means "prior in making decision for" and having this priority proved, Imam Ali's (a) imamate will also be proved, since 'Arabs use "Awla" (prior) only in cases where the "Mawla" has a responsibility for people and his orders are acceptable for them.[96] And thus, when "priority in making decision" is proved, their priority of decisions for all the aspects of Muslims' lives will also be proved as the Prophet (s) had such a priority and authority:
“     The Prophet has a greater right (or a greater authority) over the faithful than they have over their own selves…     ”
— Quran, 33:6

To prove this point, Shi'a have studied and discussed the content of this hadith. The word "Mawla" has been used in this hadith several times. It is a derivation of the word "Wali" and it is a name of God.[97] It has different meanings. In one sense, it is rhymed with the verbal form "Faʿīl" (Arabic: فعيل) meaning "Fāʿil" (Arabic: فاعل)[98] and thus has the usages of governor, ruler, guardian, manager and master.[99] Its other usages are "the one who has a greater right", "closer", "attached" and "a following lover".[100]

Evidences for Shi'a Justification

According to Shi'a, although this word has various usages, there are contextual references [in and out of the text] of this hadith which suggest that the word "Mawla" in this hadith just and only means "prior authority in making decision". These evidences are:

In the Text

*    The coherence and relation between the two phrase "Alast Awla Bikum Min Anfusakum"? ["Have I not a greater right over you than your selves"?] and "Man Kunt Mawlah" ["one for whom I am the Mawla"]:

In this hadith, the Prophet (s) clarifies his greater right and authority over the faithful than themselves, based on the verse 6 of the Qur'an 33, "The Prophet has a greater right (or a greater authority) over the faithful than they have over their own selves…." The greater right and authority mentioned in this verse is about the life of the faithful and also about ruling them than themselves. When there is a greater right and authority, we are required to follow and obey the one who has that greater right and authority.[101] According to the opinions of some exegetes, the greater right and authority mentioned in this verse addresses all worldly and spiritual affairs of Muslims,[102] since the Prophet (s) would order the faithful only to what brings them the happiness in religion and the world.[103]

Therefore, the correlation which exists between the mentioned phrase implying "the greater right and authority" and introducing 'Ali (a) in the other phrase shows that "Mawla" in the second phrase supported 'Ali's (a) greater right and authority over Muslims.[104]

*    Sentences at the Beginning of the Sermon

At the beginning of his sermon, the Prophet (s) gave the news about his demise and then asked about unity and whether he did his mission well.[105] These are all signs for the fact that the Prophet (s) was trying to find a solution for the period after his demise, so that the Umma would not remain without leader and guardian and the great efforts he (s) made would not be left without fruits. He (s) wanted to appoint a wise and competent successor to manage different issues after he (s) passed away[106] and the verse 67 of Qur'an 5 is an evidence to support this claim.

Situational Evidences

*    'Umar b. al-Khattab and Abu Bakr's Congratulations:

In some versions of narrating this hadith, it is mentioned that after the Prophet's (s) sermon, 'Umar b. al-Khattab and Abu Bakr approached 'Ali (a) and congratulated his Wilaya to him.[107] 'Umar b. al-Khattab told him, "Happy, happy for you, O Ibn Abi Talib! You became my Mawla and the Mawla of all Muslims."[108] This kind of congratulating shows that companions and other Muslims understood the word "Mawla" to imply the meaning of caliphate and having greater rights and authority.[109]

*    Poems of the Poets of Early Islam

Some Muslims composed poems about that event, first of whom was Hassan b. Thabit. He was present there and asked the Prophet (s) for permission to compose some verses of poem about that event. In these verses, that event is mentioned as the appointment of Imam 'Ali (a) as Imam and the guidance of the Umma.[110]

Later in next years,

*    'Amr b. al-'As,
*    Qays b. Sa'd b. 'Ubada,[111]
*    Kumayt b. Zayd al-Asadi,[112]
*    Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah al-Himyari,[113]
*    Al-Sayyid Isma'il al-Himyari[114]

narrated that event in their poems.

Also, Imam 'Ali (a) composed some verses of poem about that event.[115] 'Allama Amini mentioned the name of some poets from among the Companions, the Followers, and Muslim poets before ninth/fifteenth century.[116] The message of all these verses and poems suggest that the understanding of the word "Mawla" in them has been greater right, authority and caliphate.

Imam 'Ali (a):

The Prophet (s), on the Day of Ghadir,

Made his Wilaya on you, an obligation for me,

so woe and woe and woe,

Upon one who meets his Lord tomorrow, while done injustice on me

Ahl al-Bayt's (s) Giving Proofs and Referring to this Hadith

In some cases, Imam 'Ali (a) referred to this hadith to prove his greater right for caliphate and imamate. Among such cases are his argument against Talha in the Battle of Jamal,[117] his argument in the yard of the mosque of Kufa,[118] writing some verses of poem in his letter to Mu'awiya[119] and his argument in the Battle of Siffin.[120] Lady Fatima (a) referred to this hadith in arguing against opponents to the caliphate of Imam 'Ali (a).[121]

Suffering Some Companions, who rejected this Hadith, from Incurable Diseases

Some Companions who were present at the event of Ghadir Khumm later avoided to testify to this event and were afflicted to the curse of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) which made them afflicted with diseases. For example, Anas b. Malik contracted leprosy[122] and Zayd b. Arqam[123] and al-Ash'ath b. Qays[124] became blind. This shows that it was an event more than friendship and assistance of Imam 'Ali (a) that those people rejected it and the Ahl al-Bayt (a) found them deserved to be cursed.[125]

Al-Tabligh Verse

O Apostle! Communicate that which has been sent down to you from your Lord, and if you do not, you will not have communicated His message, and Allah shall protect you from the people. Indeed Allah does not guide the faithless lot     ”     — Quran, 5:67

Verse 67 of Qur'an 5 which according to hadiths[126] and the opinion of some exegetes[127] was revealed in Hajjat al-Wida' on the way between Mecca and Medina, assigned the Prophet (s) with the announcement of a very important issue which was equal to his 23 year mission and if he (s) had not announced that, it was as if he (s) had not carried out his mission. However, it would have risks which God promised him to take care of. There are points in the verse which suggest that what the Prophet (s) had to do was announcement of the Wilaya of Imam 'Ali (a)[128] and this is mentioned by Ibn 'Abbas, Bara' b. 'Adhib and Muhammad b. 'Ali.[129]

But, some believe that the goal of this mission has been mentioning some issues such as the rulings for qisas and rajm (stoning), marriage with the wife of his adopted son Zayd, obligation of Jihad, saying the weak points and problems of Jews and Quraysh and the idols of the polytheists.[130] However, according to what was mentioned earlier, such interpretations are incorrect.

Al-Ikmal Verse

        “     Today the faithless have despaired of your religion. So do not fear them, but fear Me. Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed My blessing upon you, and I have approved Islam as your religion.     ”        — Quran, 5:3

After the sermon of the Prophet (s), a part of verse 3 of Qur'an 5 was revealed to him[131] which shows the importance of this day. Disappointment of disbelievers from Islam, perfection of religious teachings, completion of blessings of God and God's pleasure in Islam to be the ultimate religion for people.[132]

According to some scholars, the verse mentioned the last duty in Islam and no other obligation is mentioned after that.[133] Also the Prophet (s), after this verse revealed to him, praised God for perfection of religion.[134] Since there was no ruling left to perfect religion and disappoint disbelievers at that time, announcement of the Wilaya of 'Ali (a) was the only issue which had all these advantages[135] as some hadiths have mentioned this.[136]

On the contrary, some believe that perfection of religion was due to perfection of religious rulings by mentioning the rulings which meet the needs of future Muslims and thus no new religion is needed to come;[137] while, this is not true and perfection of rulings is not related to disappointment of disbelievers in apostasy and return of Muslims to disbelief, since many disbelievers hoped that after the Prophet (s) passed away, his religion would also be forgotten after a while, but announcement of a successor after the Prophet (s) disappointed them.[138] Moreover, the outward power of Islam was revealed on the day of the Conquest of Mecca not in 10/632 when the event of Ghadir Khum took place. Therefore, perfection of religion was not due to exposure of the outward power of Islam on that day but some other reasons which were mentioned above.[139]

Verses at the Beginning of the Sura al-Ma'arij

After the Prophet (s) announced the issue of 'Ali's Wilaya to people, a person called Nu'man b. Harith al-Fihri came to the Prophet (s) and objected that, "You ordered us to acknowledge Unity of God, your prophethood, performing Jihad, Hajj, fasting, prayer, and giving Zakat and we accepted. But, you were not satisfied with this much until you appointed this young man as our Wali. Is this appointment your own decision or from God?!" As soon as the Prophet (s) answered him that it was God's order, the man asked God disdainfully that if this order was from God, a stone should fall on his head from the sky. Then, a stone fell from the sky on his head and he dropped dead and the verses at the Beginning of the Qur'an 70 were then revealed:[140]

         “     An asker asked for a punishment bound to befall (1) —which none can avert from the faithless— (2) from Allah, Lord of the lofty stations.     ”                 — Quran 70:1-3

Shi'a believe that this person did not understand from the hadith but the caliphate of Imam 'Ali (a) after the Prophet (s), otherwise, if he only understood the Prophet's (s) request of people to love 'Ali (a), he would not be bothered from the Prophet's (s) announcement which would require such a grave punishment for him.


References to the al-Ghadir Sermon

Shi'a Books

*    Al-Burhan;
*    Al-Ikhtisas;
*    Ihqaq al-haqq;
*    Al-Ihtijaj;
*    Ithbat al-hudat;
*    Al-Amali;
*    Al-'Umda;
*    Ma'ani al-akhbar;
*    Bihar al-anwar;
*    Al-Manaqib;
*    Amali;
*    Mustadrak al-wasa'il;
*    Kashf al-ghumma;
*    'Uyun akhbar al-Rida (a);
*    'Ilal al-sharayi';
*    Jawahir al-saniyya;
*    Tafsir al-Qummi;
*    Tafsir al-'Ayyashi;
*    Al-Tibyan

Sunni Books

*    Al-Aghani;
*    Al-I'tiqad;
*    Al-Isaba;
*    Usd al-ghaba;
*    Al-Isti'ab;
*    Akhbar Isfahan;
*    Tarikh al-kabir;
*    Tarikh Dimashq;
*    Tarikh Baghdad;
*    Tarikh al-Islam;
*    Al-Bidaya wa l-nihaya;
*    Ansab al-ashraf;
*    Tadhkirat al-khawas;
*    Al-Imama wa l-siyasa;
*    Yanabi' al-mawadda;
*    Wafayat;
*    Al-Nihaya;
*    Nazm durar al-simtayn;
*    Sunan Ibn Maja;
*    Al-Tabaqat al-kubra;
*    Al-Mustadrak;
*    Al-Manaqib (al-Khwarazmi);
*    Al-Manaqib (Ibn Maghazili);
*    Musnad Ibn Hanbal;
*    Muruj al-dhahab;
*    Kanz al-'Ummal;
*    Al-Fusul al-muhimma;
*    Fara'id al-simtayn;
*    Fath al-qadir;
*    'Iqd al-farid;
*    Sahih Muslim;
*    Shawahid al-tanzil;
*    Sharh Nahj al-balagha (Ibn Abi l-Hadid);
*    Al-Sira al-halabiyya;
*    Sunan Nasa'i;
*    Tahdhib al-tahdhib;
*    Sunan al-Tirmidhi;
*    Ruh al-ma'ani;
*    Dhakha'ir al-'uqba;
*    Al-Khutat wa l-athar;
*    Khasa'is al-Nasa'i;
*    Tafsir Fakhr al-Razi

Text: Al-Ghadir Sermon (ARABIC-ENGLISH)


الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي عَلَا فِي تَوَحُّدِهِ وَ دَنَا فِي تَفَرُّدِهِ وَ جَلَّ فِي سُلْطَانِهِ وَ عَظُمَ فِي أَرْكَانِهِ وَ أَحاطَ بِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ عِلْماً وَ هُوَ فِي مَكَانِهِ وَ قَهَرَ جَمِيعَ الْخَلْقِ بِقُدْرَتِهِ وَ بُرْهَانِهِ. مَجِيداً لَمْ يَزَلْ، مَحْمُوداً لَا يَزَالُ، بَارِئَ الْمَسْمُوكَاتِ وَ دَاحِيَ الْمَدْحُوَّاتِ وَ جَبَّارَ الْأَرَضِينَ وَ السَّمَاوَاتِ. قُدُّوسٌ، سُبُّوحٌ، رَبُّ الْمَلَائِكَةِ وَ الرُّوحِ، مُتَفَضِّلٌ عَلَى جَمِيعِ مَنْ بَرَأَهُ، مُتَطَوِّلٌ عَلَى جَمِيعِ مَنْ أَنْشَأَهُ، يَلْحَظُ كُلَّ عَيْنٍ وَ الْعُيُونُ لَا تَرَاهُ، كَرِيمٌ، حَلِيمٌ، ذُو أَنَاةٍ، قَدْ وَسِعَ كُلَّ شَيْ‏ءٍ رَحْمَتُهُ وَ مَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ بِنِعْمَتِهِ، لَا يُعَجِّلُ بِانْتِقَامِهِ وَ لَا يُبَادِرُ إِلَيْهِمْ بِمَا اسْتَحَقُّوا مِنْ عَذَابِهِ. قَدْ فَهِمَ السَّرَائِرَ وَ عَلِمَ الضَّمَائِرَ وَ لَمْ تَخْفَ عَلَيْهِ الْمَكْنُونَاتُ وَ لَا اشْتَبَهَتْ عَلَيْهِ الْخَفِيَّاتُ، لَهُ الْإِحَاطَةُ بِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ وَ الْغَلَبَةُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ وَ الْقُوَّةُ فِي كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ وَ الْقُدْرَةُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ وَ لَيْسَ مِثْلَهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَ هُوَ مُنْشِئُ الشَّيْ‏ءِ حِينَ لَا شَيْ‏ءَ، دَائِمٌ، قَائِمٌ بِالْقِسْطِ، لا إِلهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ. جَلَّ عَنْ أَنْ تُدْرِكَهُ الْأَبْصارُ وَ هُوَ يُدْرِكُ الْأَبْصارَ وَ هُوَ اللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِير. لَا يَلْحَقُ أَحَدٌ وَصْفَهُ مِنْ مُعَايَنَةٍ وَ لَا يَجِدُ أَحَدٌ كَيْفَ هُوَ مِنْ سِرٍّ وَ عَلَانِيَةٍ إِلَّا بِمَا دَلَّ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ.

وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّهُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي مَلَأَ الدَّهْرَ قُدْسُهُ وَ الَّذِي يُغَشِّي الْأَبَدَ نُورُهُ وَ الَّذِي يُنْفِذُ أَمْرَهُ بِلَا مُشَاوَرَةِ مُشِيرٍ- وَ لَا مَعَهُ شَرِيكٌ فِي تَقْدِيرٍ وَ لَا تَفَاوُتٌ فِي تَدْبِيرٍ صَوَّرَ مَا أَبْدَعَ عَلَى غَيْرِ مِثَالٍ وَ خَلَقَ مَا خَلَقَ بِلَا مَعُونَةٍ مِنْ أَحَدٍ وَ لَا تَكَلُّفٍ وَ لَا احْتِيَالٍ. أَنْشَأَهَا فَكَانَتْ وَ بَرَأَهَا فَبَانَتْ. فَهُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لا إِلهَ إِلَّا هُوَ، الْمُتْقِنُ الصَّنْعَةِ، الْحَسَنُ الصَّنِيعَة،ِ الْعَدْلُ، الَّذِي لَا يَجُورُ وَ الْأَكْرَمُ الَّذِي تَرْجِعُ إِلَيْهِ الْأُمُورُ. وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّهُ الَّذِي تَوَاضَعَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ لِقُدْرَتِهِ وَ خَضَعَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ لِهَيْبَتِهِ، مَلِكُ الْأَمْلَاكِ وَ مُفْلِكُ الْأَفْلَاكِ وَ مُسَخِّرُ الشَّمْسِ وَ الْقَمَرِ كُلٌّ يَجْرِي لِأَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى ﴿يُكَوِّرُ اللَّيْلَ عَلَى النَّهارِ وَ يُكَوِّرُ النَّهارَ عَلَى اللَّيْلِ﴾ ﴿يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثاً﴾ قَاصِمُ كُلِّ جَبَّارٍ عَنِيدٍ وَ مُهْلِكُ كُلِّ شَيْطَانٍ مَرِيدٍ.

لَمْ يَكُنْ مَعَهُ ضِدٌّ وَ لَا نِدٌّ، أَحَدٌ، صَمَدٌ، ﴿لَمْ يَلِدْ وَ لَمْ يُولَدْ • وَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُواً أَحَدٌ﴾، إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ وَ رَبٌّ مَاجِدٌ. يَشَاءُ فَيُمْضِي وَ يُرِيدُ فَيَقْضِي وَ يَعْلَمُ فَيُحْصِي وَ يُمِيتُ وَ يُحْيِي وَ يُفْقِرُ وَ يُغْنِي وَ يُضْحِكُ وَ يُبْكِي وَ يَمْنَعُ وَ يُعْطِي. لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ. بِيَدِهِ الْخَيْرُ وَ هُوَ عَلى‏ كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ قَدِيرٌ. ﴿يُولِجُ اللَّيْلَ فِي النَّهارِ وَ يُولِجُ النَّهارَ فِي اللَّيْلِ﴾ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْغَفَّارُ. مُجِيبُ الدُّعَاءِ وَ مُجْزِلُ الْعَطَاءِ، مُحْصِي الْأَنْفَاسِ وَ رَبُّ الْجِنَّةِ وَ النَّاسِ، لَا يُشْكِلُ عَلَيْهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَ لَا يُضْجِرُهُ صُرَاخُ الْمُسْتَصْرِخِينَ وَ لَا يُبْرِمُهُ إِلْحَاحُ الْمُلِحِّينَ، الْعَاصِمُ لِلصَّالِحِينَ وَ الْمُوَفِّقُ لِلْمُفْلِحِينَ وَ مَوْلَى الْعَالَمِينَ الَّذِي اسْتَحَقَّ مِنْ كُلِّ مَنْ خَلَقَ أَنْ يَشْكُرَهُ وَ يَحْمَدَهُ.

أَحْمَدُهُ عَلَى السَّرَّاءِ وَ الضَّرَّاءِ وَ الشِدَّةِ وَ الرَّخَاءِ وَ أُومِنُ بِهِ وَ بِمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَ كُتُبِهِ وَ رُسُلِهِ. أَسْمَعُ أَمْرَهُ وَ أُطِيعُ وَ أُبَادِرُ إِلَى كُلِّ مَا يَرْضَاهُ وَ أَسْتَسْلِمُ لِقَضَائِهِ، رَغْبَةً فِي طَاعَتِهِ وَ خَوْفاً مِنْ عُقُوبَتِهِ، لِأَنَّهُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا يُؤْمَنُ مَكْرُهُ وَ لَا يُخَافُ‏ جَوْرُهُ وَ أُقِرُّ لَهُ عَلَى نَفْسِي بِالْعُبُودِيَّةِ وَ أَشْهَدُ لَهُ بِالرُّبُوبِيَّةِ وَ أُؤَدِّي مَا أَوْحَى إِلَيَّ حَذَراً مِنْ أَنْ لَا أَفْعَلَ فَتَحُلَّ بِي مِنْهُ قَارِعَةٌ لَا يَدْفَعُهَا عَنِّي أَحَدٌ وَ إِنْ عَظُمَتْ حِيلَتُهُ. لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ لِأَنَّهُ قَدْ أَعْلَمَنِي أَنِّي إِنْ لَمْ أُبَلِّغْ مَا أَنْزَلَ إِلَيَّ فَمَا بَلَّغْتُ رِسَالَتَهُ وَ قَدْ ضَمِنَ لِي تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى الْعِصْمَةَ وَ هُوَ اللَّهُ الْكَافِي الْكَرِيمُ فَأَوْحَى إِلَيَّ ﴿بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ. يا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ ما أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ - فِي عَلِيٍّ يَعْنِي فِي الْخِلَافَةِ لِعَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ - وَ إِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَما بَلَّغْتَ رِسالَتَهُ وَ اللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ﴾

مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ مَا قَصَّرْتُ فِي تَبْلِيغِ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى إِلَيَّ وَ أَنَا مُبَيِّنٌ لَكُمْ سَبَبَ نُزُولِ هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ، إِنَّ جَبْرَئِيلَ هَبَطَ إِلَيَّ مِرَاراً ثَلَاثاً يَأْمُرُنِي عَنِ السَّلَامِ رَبِّي وَ هُوَ السَّلَامُ أَنْ أَقُومَ فِي هَذَا الْمَشْهَدِ فَأُعْلِمَ كُلَّ أَبْيَضَ وَ أَسْوَدَ أَنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع أَخِي وَ وَصِيِّي وَ خَلِيفَتِي وَ الْإِمَامُ مِنْ بَعْدِي، الَّذِي مَحَلُّهُ مِنِّي مَحَلُّ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَى إِلَّا أَنَّهُ لَا نَبِيَّ بَعْدِي وَ هُوَ وَلِيُّكُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ اللَّهِ وَ رَسُولِهِ وَ قَدْ أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى عَلَيَّ بِذَلِكَ آيَةً مِنْ كِتَابِهِ ﴿إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّـهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ﴾ وَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ أَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَ آتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَ هُوَ رَاكِعٌ يُرِيدُ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي كُلِّ حَالٍ. وَ سَأَلْتُ جَبْرَئِيلَ أَنْ يَسْتَعْفِيَ لِي عَنْ تَبْلِيغِ ذَلِكَ إِلَيْكُمْ، أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، لِعِلْمِي بِقِلَّةِ الْمُتَّقِينَ وَ كَثْرَةِ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَ إِدْغَالِ الْآثِمِينَ وَ خَتْلِ الْمُسْتَهْزِءِينَ بِالْإِسْلَامِ، الَّذِينَ وَصَفَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي كِتَابِهِ بِأَنَّهُمْ ﴿يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ ما لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ﴾ وَ يَحْسَبُونَهُ هَيِّناً وَ هُوَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ عَظِيمٌ وَ كَثْرَةِ أَذَاهُمْ لِي فِي غَيْرِ مَرَّةٍ حَتَّى سَمَّوْنِي أُذُناً وَ زَعَمُوا أَنِّي كَذَلِكَ لِكَثْرَةِ مُلَازَمَتِهِ إِيَّايَ وَ إِقْبَالِي عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي ذَلِكَ قُرْآناً ﴿وَمِنْهُمُ الَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ النَّبِيَّ وَيَقُولُونَ هُوَ أُذُنٌ، قُلْ أُذُنُ ـ على الّذين يزْعمون أنّه أذنٌ ـ خَيْرٍ لَّكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّـهِ وَيُؤْمِنُ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ﴾ ولوْ شئْت أنْ أسمي بأسْمائهمْ لسمّيْت، وأنْ أومي إليْهمْ بأعْيانهمْ لأوْمأْت، وأنْ أدلّ عليْهمْ لدللْت، ولكنّي واللّه في أمورهمْ قدْ تكرّمْت. وكلّ ذلك لا يرْضى اللّه منّي إلاّ أنْ أبلّغ ما أنْزل إليّ.

ثمّ تلا صلّى الله عليْه وآله:

﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ ـ في عليٍّ ـ وَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ وَاللَّـهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ﴾.

فاعْلموا معاشر النّاس أنّ اللّه قدْ نصبه لكمْ وليّا وإماما مفترضا طاعته على الْمهاجرين والأنْصار وعلى التّابعين لهمْ بإحْسانٍ، وعلى الْبادي والْحاضر، وعلى الأعْجميّ والْعربيّ، والْحرّ والْممْلوك، والصّغير والْكبير، وعلى الأبْيض والأسْود، وعلى كلّ موحّدٍ. ماضٍ حكْمه، جازٍ قوْله، نافذٌ أمْره، ملْعونٌ منْ خالفه، مرْحومٌ منْ تبعه، مؤْمنٌ منْ صدّقه، فقدْ غفر اللّه له ولمنْ سمع منْه وأطاع له.

معاشر النّاس، إنّه آخر مقامٍ أقومه في هذا الْمشْهد، فاسْمعوا وأطيعوا وانْقادوا لأمْر ربّكمْ، فإنّ اللّه عزّ وجلّ هو موْلاكمْ وإلهكمْ، ثمّ منْ دونه محمّدٌ وليّكمْ الْقائم المْـخاطب لكمْ، ثمّ منْ بعْدي عليٌّ وليّكمْ وإمامكمْ بأمْر ربّكمْ، ثمّ الإمامة في ذرّيّتي منْ ولْده إلى يوْم تلْقوْن اللّه ورسوله. لا حلال إلاّ ما أحلّه اللّه، ولا حرام إلاّ ما حرّمه الله، عرّفني الْحلال والْحرام وأنا أفْضيْت بما علّمني ربّي منْ كتابه وحلاله وحرامه إليْه. معاشر النّاس، ما منْ علْم إلاّ وقدْ أحْصاه اللّه فيّ، وكلّ علْمٍ علّمْت فقدْ أحْصيْته في إمام الْمتّقين، وما منْ علْمٍ إلاّ علّمْته عليّا، وهو الإمام الْمبين.

معاشر النّاس، لا تضلّوا عنْه ولا تنْفروا منْه، ولا تسْتنْكفوا منْ ولايته، فهو الّذي يهْدي إلى الْحقّ ويعْمل به، ويزْهق الْباطل وينْهى عنْه، ولا تأْخذه في اللّه لوْمة لائمٍ. ثمّ إنّه أوّل منْ آمن باللّه ورسوله، وهو الّذي فدى رسوله بنفْسه، وهو الّذي كان مع رسول اللّه ولا أحد يعْبد اللّه مع رسوله من الرّجال غيْره. معاشر النّاس، فضّلوه فقدْ فضّله اللّه، واقْبلوه فقدْ نصبه اللّه. معاشر النّاس، إنّه إمامٌ من الله، ولنْ يتوب اللّه على أحدٍ أنْكر ولايته ولنْ يغْفر له، حتْما على اللّه أنْ يفْعل ذلك بمنْ خالف أمْره فيه وأنْ يعذّبه عذابا شديدا نكْرا أبد الآباد ودهْر الدّهور. فاحْذروا أنْ تخالفوه، فتصْلوا ﴿نارا وقودها النّاس والْحجارة أعدّتْ للْكافرين﴾.

أيّها النّاس، بي واللّه بشّر الأوّلون من النّبيّين والْمرْسلين، وأنا خاتم الأنْبياء والْمرْسلين والْحجّة على جميع الْمخْلوقين منْ أهْل السّماوات والأرضين. فمنْ شكّ في ذلك فهو كافرٌ كفْر الْجاهليّة الأولى، ومنْ شكّ في شيْءٍ منْ قوْلي هذا فقدْ شكّ في الكلّ منْه، والشّاك في ذلك فله النّار. معاشر النّاس، حباني اللّه بهذه الْفضيلة منّا منْه عليّ وإحْسانا منْه إليّ ولا إله إلاّ هو، له الْحمْد منّي أبد الآبدين ودهْر الدّاهرين وعلى كلّ حال. معاشر النّاس، فضّلوا عليّا فانّه أفْضل النّاس بعْدي منْ ذكرٍ وأنْثى. بنا أنْزل اللّه الرّزْق وبقي الْخلْق. ملْعونٌ ملْعونٌ، مغْضوبٌ مغْضوبٌ منْ ردّ عليّ قولي هذا ولمْ يوافقْه. ألا إنّ جبْرئيل خبّرني عن اللّه تعالى بذلك ويقول: منْ عادى عليّا ولمْ يتولّه فعليْه لعْنتي وغضبي، ﴿وَلْتَنظُرْ نَفْسٌ مَّا قَدَّمَتْ لِغَدٍ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ﴾ ـ أنْ تخالفوه ﴿فتزلّ قدمٌ بعْد ثبوتها﴾ ـ ﴿إِنَّ اللَّـهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ﴾.

معاشر النّاس، إنّه جنْب اللّه الّذي ذكر في كتابه، فقال تعالى مخْبرا: ﴿أَن تَقُولَ نَفْسٌ يَا حَسْرَتَىٰ عَلَىٰ مَا فَرَّطتُ فِي جَنبِ اللَّـهِ﴾.

معاشر النّاس، تدبّروا القرْآن وافْهموا آياته وانْظروا إلى محْكماته ولا تتّبعوا متشابهه، فو اللّه لنْ يبيّن لكمْ زواجره ولنْ يوضح لكمْ تفْسيره إلاّ الّذي أنا آخذٌ بيده ومصْعده إليّ وشائلٌ بعضده ومعْلمكمْ أنّ: منْ كنْت موْلاه فهذا عليٌّ موْلاه، وهو عليّ بْن أبي طالب أخي ووصيّي، وموالاته من اللّه عزّ وجلّ أنْزلها عليّ.

معاشر النّاس، إنّ عليّا والطّيّبين منْ ولْدي هم الثّقْل الأصْغر، والْقرْآن الثّقْل الأكْبر، فكلّ واحدٍ منْبئٌ عنْ صاحبه وموافقٌ له، لنْ يفْترقا حتى يردا عليّ الْحوْض. همْ أمناء اللّه في خلْقه وحكّامه في أرْضه.

ألا وقدْ أدّيْت، ألا وقدْ بلّغْت، ألا وقدْ أسْمعْت، ألا وقدْ أوْضحْت. ألا وإنّ اللّه عزّ وجلّ قال وأنا قلْت عن اللّه عزّ وجلّ. ألا إنّه ليْس «أمير الْمؤْمنين» غيْر أخي هذا. ولا تحلّ إمْرة الْمؤْمنين بعْدي لأحدٍ غيْره.

ثمّ ضرب بيده إلى عضد عليٍّ عليْه السّلام فرفعه، وكان أمير المؤمنين عليْه السّلام منْذ أوّل ما صعد رسول اللّه صلّى الله عليْه وآله وشال عليّا عليْه السّلام حتّى صارت رجْله مع ركْبة رسول اللّه صلّى الله عليْه وآله. ثمّ قال:

معاشر النّاس، هذا عليٌّ أخي ووصيّي وواعي علْمي، وخليفتي في أمّتي وعلى تفْسير كتاب اللّه عزّ وجلّ، والدّاعي إليْه والْعامل بما يرْضاه والْمحارب لأعْدائه والْموالي على طاعته والنّاهي عنْ معْصيته. خليفة رسول اللّه وأمير الْمؤْمنين والإمام الْهادي وقاتل النّاكثين والْقاسطين والْمارقين بأمْر اللّه.

یقُولُ اللّه‏ُ: ﴿ما یبَدَّلُ الْقَوْلُ لَدَی﴾، بأَمْرِکَ یا رَبِّ أَقُولُ:اللّهُمَّ والِ مَنْ والاهُ وَعادِ مَنْ عاداهُ وَاْنصُرْ مَنْ نَصَرَهُ وَاخْذُلْ مَنْ خَذَلَهُ وَالْعَنْ مَنْ أَنْکَرَهُ وَاغْضِبْ عَلی مَنْ جَحَدَ حَقَّهُ. اللّهُمَّ إنَّکَ أَنْزَلْتَ الاْآیةَ فی عَلِی وَلِیکَ عِنْدَ تَبْیینِ ذلِکَ وَنَصْبِکَ إیاهُ لِهذَا الْیوْمِ: ﴿الْیوْمَ أَکْمَلْتُ لَکُمْ دینَکُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَیکُمْ نِعْمَتی وَرَضیتُ لَکُمُ الاْءسْلامَ دینا﴾، وَ قُلْتَ: ﴿إنَّ الدّینَ عِنْدَ اللّه‏ِ اْلإسْلامُ﴾، وَ قُلْتَ: ﴿وَ مَنْ یبْتَغِ غَیرَ الاْءسْلامِ دینا فَلَنْ یقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَ هُوَ فِی الاْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخاسِرینَ﴾. اللّهُمَّ إنّی أُشْهِدُکَ أَنّی قَدْ بَلَّغْتُ.

معاشر النّاس، إنّما أكْمل اللّه عزّ وجلّ دينكمْ بإمامته. فمنْ لمْ يأْتمّ به وبمنْ يقوم مقامه منْ ولْدي منْ صلْبه إلى يوْم الْقيامة والْعرْض على اللّه عزّ وجلّ فأولئك الّذين حبطتْ أعْمالهمْ وفي النّار همْ خالدون، ﴿لَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمْ يُنظَرُونَ﴾

معاشر النّاس، هذا عليٌّ، أنْصركمْ لي وأحقّكمْ بي وأقْربكمْ إليّ وأعزّكمْ عليّ، واللّه عزّ وجلّ وأنا عنْه راضيان. وما نزلتْ آية رضا إلاّ فيه، وما خاطب اللّه الّذين آمنوا إلاّ بدأ به، ولا نزلتْ آية مدْحٍ في الْقرآن إلاّ فيه، ولا شهد الله بالْجنّة في ﴿هلْ أتى على الإنْسان﴾ إلاّ له، ولا أنْزلها في سواه ولا مدح بها غيْره. معاشر النّاس، هو ناصر دين اللّه، والْمجادل عنْ رسول اللّه، وهو التّقيّ النّقيّ الْهادي الْمهْديّ. نبيّكمْ خيْر نبيٍّ ووصيّكمْ خيْر وصيٍّ وبنوه خيْر الأوْصياء. معاشر النّاس، ذرّيّة كلّ نبيٍّ منْ صلْبه، وذرّيّتي منْ صلْب أمير الْمؤْمنين عليٍّ.

معاشر النّاس، إنّ إبْليس أخْرج آدم من الْجنّة بالْحسد، فلا تحْسدوه فتحْبط أعْمالكمْ وتزلّ أقْدامكمْ، فانّ آدم أهْبط إلى الأرْض لخطيئةٍ واحدةٍ، وهو صفْوة اللّه عزّ وجلّ، وكيْف بكمْ وأنْتمْ أنْتمْ ومنْكمْ أعْداء اللّه. ألا وإنّه لا يبْغض عليّا إلاّ شقيٌّ، ولا يوالي عليّا إلاّ تقيٌّ، ولا يؤْمن به إلاّ مؤْمنٌ مخْلصٌ. وفي عليٍّ ـ والله ـ نزلتْ سورة الْعصْر: ﴿بسْم اللّه الرّحْمن الرّحيم والْعصْر • إنّ الإنْسان لفي خسْر • إلاّ الّذين آمنوا وعملوا الصّالحات وتواصوْا بالحقّ وتواصوْا بالصّبْر﴾.

معاشر النّاس، قد اسْتشْهدْت الله وبلّغْتكمْ رسالتي ﴿وما على الرّسول إلاّ البلاغ المبين﴾. معاشر النّاس، ﴿اتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنتُم مُّسْلِمُونَ﴾. معاشر النّاس، آمنوا باللّه ورسوله والنّور الّذي أنْزل معه ﴿منْ قبْل أنْ نطْمس وجوها فنردّها على أدْبارها أوْ نلْعنهمْ كما لعنّا أصْحاب السّبْت﴾. بِاللّه‏ِ ما عَنی بِهذِهِ الاْآیةِ إلاّ قَوْما مِنْ أَصْحابی أَعْرِفُهُمْ بِأَسْمائِهِمْ وَأَنْسابِهِمْ، وَقَدْ أُمِرْتُ بِالصَّفْحِ عَنْهُمْ. فَلْیعْمَـلْ کُلُّ امْرِئٍ عَلی ما یجِدُ لِعَلِی فی قَلْبِهِ مِنَ الْحُبِّ وَالْبُغْضِ. معاشر النّاس، النّور من اللّه عزّ وجلّ مسْلوكٌ فيّ ثمّ في عليّ بْن أبي طالبٍ، ثمّ في النّسْل منْه إلى الْقائم الْمهْديّ الّذي يأْخذ بحقّ اللّه وبكلّ حقٍّ هو لنا، لأنّ اللّه عزّ وجلّ قدْ جعلنا حجّة على الْمقصّرين والْمعاندين والمخالفين والْخائنين والآثمين والظّالمين منْ جميع الْعالمين.

معاشر النّاس، أنْذركمْ أنّي رسول اللّه قدْ خلتْ منْ قبْلي الرّسل، أفإنْ متّ أوْ قتلْت انْقلبْتمْ على أعْقابكمْ؟ ﴿ومنْ ينْقلبْ على عقبيْه فلنْ يضرّ اللّه شيْئا وسيجْزي اللّه الشّاكرين﴾ الصّابرين. ألا وإنّ عليّا هو الْموصوف بالصّبْر والشّكْر، ثمّ منْ بعْده ولْدي منْ صلْبه.

معاشر النّاس، لا تمنّوا على الله إسْلامكمْ فيسْخط عليْكمْ ويصيبكم بعذابٍ منْ عنده، إنّه لبالْمرْصاد.

معاشر النّاس، إنّه سيكون منْ بعْدي ﴿أئمّةٌ يدْعون إلى النّار ويوْم الْقيامة لا ينْصرون﴾. معاشر النّاس، إنّ اللّه وأنا بريئان منْهمْ. معاشر النّاس، إنّهمْ وانْصارهمْ وأتْباعهمْ وأشْياعهمْ في الدّرْك الأسْفل من النّار ﴿ولبئْس مثْوى الْمتكبّرين﴾. ألا إنّهمْ أصْحاب الصّحيفة، فلْينْظرْ أحدكمْ في صحيفته!

قال: فذهب على النّاس ـ إلاّ شرْذمةٌ منْهمْ ـ أمْر الصّحيفة.

معاشر النّاس، إنّي أدعها إمامة ووراثة في عقبـي إلى يوْم الْقيامة، وقدْ بلّغْت ما أمرْت بتبْليغه حجّة على كلّ حاضرٍ وغائبٍ وعلى كلّ أحدٍ ممّنْ شهد أوْ لمْ يشْهدْ، ولد أوْ لمْ يولدْ، فلْيبلّغ الْحاضر الْغائب والْوالد الْولد إلى يوْم الْقيامة. وسيجْعلون الإمامة بعْدي ملْكا واغْتصابا، ألا لعن اللّه الغاصبين الْمغْتصبين، وعنْدها ﴿سنفْرغ لكمْ أيّها الثّقلان﴾، و ﴿يرْسل عليْكما شواظٌ منْ نار ونحاسٌ فلا تنْتصران﴾. معاشر النّاس، إنّ اللّه عزّ وجلّ لمْ يكنْ ليذركمْ ﴿على ما أنْتمْ عليْه حتّى يميز الْخبيث من الطّيّب وما كان اللّه ليطْلعكمْ على الْغيْب﴾. معاشر النّاس، إنّه ما منْ قرْية إلاّ واللّه مهْلكها بتكْذيبها قَبْلَ یوْمِ الْقِیامَةِ، وَمُمَلِّکُهَا الاْءمامَ الْمَهْدِی وَاللّه‏ُ مُصَدِّقٌ وَعْدَهُ. معاشر النّاس، قدْ ظلّ قبْلكمْ أكْثر الأوّلين، واللّه لقدْ أهْلك الأوّلين، وهو مهْلك الآخرين. قال اللّه تعالى: ﴿ألمْ نهْلك الأوّلين • ثمّ نتْبعهم الآخرين • كذلك نفْعل بالْمجْرمين • ويْلٌ يوْمئذ للْمكذّبين﴾

معاشر النّاس، إنّ اللّه قدْ أمرني ونهاني، وقدْ أمرْت عليّا ونهيْته. فعلْم الأمْر والنّهْي منْ ربّه عزّ وجلّ، فاسْمعوا لأمْره تسْلموا، وأطيعوه تهْتدوا، وانْتهوا لنهْيه ترْشدوا، وصيروا إلى مراده ولا تتفرّق بكم السّبل عنْ سبيله. معاشر النّاس، أنا صراط اللّه الْمسْتقيم الّذي أمركمْ باتّباعه، ثمّ عليٌّ منْ بعْدي، ثمّ ولْدي منْ صلْبه أئمّةٌ يهْدون إلى الْحقّ وبه يعْدلون.

ثمّ قرأ: ﴿بسْم الله الرّحْمن الرّحيم • الْحمْد للّه ربّ الْعالمين...﴾ إلى آخرها، وقال:

فيّ نزلتْ وفيهمْ نزلتْ، ولهمْ عمّتْ وإيّاهمْ خصّتْ، أولئك أوْلياء اللّه ﴿لا خوْفٌ عليْهمْ ولا همْ يحْزنون﴾، ألا ﴿إنّ حزْب اللّه هم الْغالبون﴾. ألا إنّ أعْداء عليٍّ همْ أهل الشّقاق والنّفاق والحادّون وهم العادون وإخْوان الشّياطين الّذين ﴿يوحي بعْضهمْ إلى بعْضٍ زخْرف الْقوْل غرورا﴾. ألا إنّ أوْلياءهم الّذين ذكرهم اللّه في كتابه، فقال عزّ وجلّ: ﴿لا تجد قوْما يؤْمنون باللّه والْيوْم الآخر يوادّون منْ حادّ اللّه ورسوله ولوْ كانوا آباءهمْ أوْ أبْناءهمْ أوْ إخْوانهمْ أوْ عشيرتهمْ، أولئك كتب في قلوبهم الإيمان...﴾. ألا إنّ أوْلياءهم الّذين وصفهم اللّه عزّ وجلّ فقال: ﴿الّذين آمنوا ولمْ يلْبسوا ايمانهمْ بظلْم أولئك لهم الأمْن وهمْ مهْتدون﴾ ألا إنّ أوْلياءهم الّذين يدْخلون الْجنّة بسلامٍ آمنين، تتلقّاهم الْملائكة بالتّسْليم يقولون: ﴿سلامٌ عليْكمْ طبْتمْ فادْخلوها خالدين﴾. أَلا إنَّ أَوْلِیاءَهُمْ، لَهُمُ الْجنّة ﴿يرْزقون فيها بغيْر حسابٍ﴾.

ألا إنّ أعْداءهم الّذين يصْلوْن سعيرا. ألا إنّ أعْداءهم الّذين يسْمعون لجهنّم شهيقا وهي تفور ولها زفير. ألا إنّ أعْداءهم الّذين قال اللّه فيهمْ ﴿كلّما دخلتْ أمّةٌ لعنتْ أخْتها حَتّىٰ إِذَا ادّارَكوا فيها جَميعًا قالَت أُخراهُم لِأولاهُم رَبَّنا هٰؤُلاءِ أَضَلّونا فَآتِهِم عَذابًا ضِعفًا مِنَ النّارِ قالَ لِكُلٍّ ضِعفٌ وَلٰكِن لا تَعلَمونَ﴾ ألا إنّ أعْداءهم الّذين قال اللّه عزّوجلّ: ﴿كلّما ألْقي فيها فوْجٌ سألهمْ خزنتها ألمْ ياْتكمْ نذيرٌ • قالوا بلى قدْ جاءنا نذيرٌ فكذّبْنا وقلْنا ما نزّل اللّه منْ شيْءٍ، إنْ أنْتمْ إلاّ في ضلال كبير • وَقالوا لَو كُنّا نَسمَعُ أَو نَعقِلُ ما كُنّا في أَصحابِ السَّعيرِ • فَاعتَرَفوا بِذَنبِهِم فَسُحقًا لِأَصحابِ السَّعيرِ﴾. ألا إنّ أوْلياءهم ﴿الّذين يخْشوْن ربّهمْ بالْغيْب لهمْ مغْفرةٌ وأجْرٌ كبيرٌ﴾. معاشر النّاس، شتّان ما بيْن السّعير وَالاْءَجْرِ الْکَبیرِ. عدوّنا منْ ذمّه اللّه ولعنه، ووليّنا منْ مدحه اللّه وأحبّه.

مَعاشِرَ النّاسِ، أَلا وَإنّی أنَا النَّذیرُ وَعَلِی الْبَشیرُ. معاشر النّاس، ألا وإنّي منْذرٌ وعليٌّ هاد. معاشر النّاس، إنّي نبيٌّ وعليٌّ وصيّي. ألا إنّ خاتم الأئمّة منّا الْقائم الْمهْديّ. ألا إنّه الظّاهر على الدّين. ألا إنّه الْمنْتقم من الظّالمين. ألا إنّه فاتح الْحصون وهادمها. ألا إنّه قاتل كلّ قبيلةٍ منْ أهْل الشّرْك. ألا إنّه الْمدْرك بكلّ ثارٍ لأوْلياء اللّه. ألا إنّه النّاصر لدين اللّه. ألا إنّه الْغرّاف في بحْرٍ عميق. ألا إنّه يسم كلّ ذي فضْل بفضْله وكلّ ذي جهْل بجهْله. ألا إنّه خيرة اللّه ومخْتاره. ألا إنّه وارث كلّ علْمٍ والمحيط بكلّ فهْم. ألا إنّه المخْبر عنْ ربّه عزّ وجلّ والمنبّه بأمْر إيمانه، ألا إنّه الرّشيد السّديد. ألا إنّه الْمفوّض إليْه. ألا إنّه قدْ بشّر به منْ سلف بيْن يديْه. ألا إنّه الْباقي حجّة ولا حجّة بعْده، ولا حقّ إلاّ معه، ولا نور إلاّ عنْده. ألا إنّه لا غالب له ولا منْصور عليْه. ألا وإنّه وليّ اللّه في أرْضه، وحكمه في خلْقه، وأمينه في سرّه وعلانيته.

معاشر النّاس، قدْ بيّنْت لكمْ وأفْهمْتكمْ، وهذا عليٌّ يفْهمكمْ بعْدي. ألا وإنّي عنْد انْقضاء خطْبتي أدْعوكمْ إلى مصافقتي على بيْعته والأقْرار به، ثمّ مصافقته بعْدي. ألا وإنّي قدْ بايعْت اللّه وعليٌّ قدْ بايعني، وأنا آخذكمْ بالْبيْعة له عن اللّه عزّ وجلّ. ﴿إنّ الّذين يبايعونك إنّما يبايعون اللّه، يد اللّه فوْق أيْديهمْ. فمنْ نكث فانّما ينْكث على نفْسه، ومنْ أوْفى بما عاهد عليْه اللّه فسيؤْتيه أجْرا عظيما﴾.

معاشر النّاس، إنَّ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ مِنْ شَعائِرِ اللّه‏ِ، ﴿فمنْ حجّ الْبيْت أو اعْتمر فلاجناح عليْه أنْ يطّوّف بهما وَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيرًا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شاكِرٌ عَليمٌ﴾. معاشر النّاس، حجّوا الْبيْت، فما ورده أهْل بيْتٍ إلاّ اسْتغْنوْاوَأُبْشِـرُوا، وَلا تَخَلَّفُـوا عَنْهُ إلاّ بُتِرُوا وَافْتَقَرُوا. معاشر النّاس، ما وقف بالْموْقف مؤْمنٌ إلاّ غفر اللّه له ما سلف منْ ذنْبه إلى وقْته ذلك، فاذا انْقضتْ حجّته اسْتأْنف عمله. معاشر النّاس، الْحجّاج معانون ونفقاتهمْ مخلّفةٌ عليْهمْ، واللّه لا يضيع أجْر الْمحْسنين. معاشر النّاس، حجّوا الْبيْت بكمال الدّين والتّفقّه، ولا تنْصرفوا عن الْمشاهد إلاّ بتوْبةٍ وإقْلاعٍ. معاشر النّاس، أقيموا الصّلاة وآتوا الزّكاة كما أمركم اللّه عزّ وجلّ فإنْ طال عليْكم الأمد فقصّرْتمْ أوْ نسيتمْ فعليٌّ وليّكمْ ومبيّنٌ لكمْ. الّذي نصبه اللّه عزّ وجلّ لكمْ بعْدي أَمینَ خَلْقِهِ. إنَّهُ مِنّی وَأَنَا مِنْهُ، وَهُوَ وَمَنْ یخْلُفُ مِنْ ذُرِّیتی یخْبِرُونَکُمْ بِما تَسْأَلُونَ عَنْهُ وَیبَینُونَ لَکُمْ ما لا تَعْلَمُونَ.

ألا إنّ الْحلال والْحرام أكْثر منْ أنْ أحْصيهما وأعرّفهما فآمر بالْحلال وأنْهى عن الْحرام في مقامٍ واحد، فأمرْت أنْ آخذ الْبيْعة منْكمْ والصّفْقة لكمْ بقبول ما جئْت به عن اللّه عزّ وجلّ في عليٍّ أمير الْمؤْمنين والأئمّة منْ بعْده الّذين همْ منّي ومنْه إمامة فيهمْ قائمة، خاتمها الْمهْديّ إلى يوْم يلْقى اللّه الّذي يقْضي بالحقّ. معاشر النّاس، وكلّ حلالٍ دللْتكمْ عليْه، وكلّ حرامٍ نهيْتكمْ عنْه؛ فإنّي لمْ أرْجعْ عنْ ذلك ولمْ أبدّلْ. ألا فاذْكروا ذلك واحْفظوه وتواصوْا به، ولا تبدّلوه ولا تغيّروه. ألا وإنّي أجدّد الْقوْل: ألا فأقيموا الصّلاة وآتوا الزّكاة وأْمروا بالْمعْروف وانْهوْا عن الْمنْكر. ألا وإنّ رأْس الأمْر بالْمعْروف والنّهي عن المنْكر أنْ تنْتهوا إلى قوْلي وتبلّغوه منْ لمْ يحْضرْ، وتأْمروه بقبوله عنّي، وتنْهوْه عنْ مخالفته فإنّه أمْرٌ من اللّه عزّ وجلّ ومنّي. ولا أمْر بمعْروفٍ ولا نهْي عنْ منْكرٍ إلاّ مع إمامٍ معْصوم.

معاشر النّاس، الْقرآن يعرّفكمْ أنّ الأئمّة منْ بعْده ولْده، وعرّفْتكمْ أنّهمْ منّي وأنا منْه، حيْث يقول اللّه في كتابه: ﴿وجعلها كلمة باقية في عقبه﴾ وقلْت لنْ تضلّوا ما إنْ تمسّكْتمْ بهما.

معاشر النّاس، التّقْوى، التّقْوى، واحْذروا السّاعة كما قال اللّه عزّ وجلّ: ﴿إنّ زلْزلة السّاعة شيْءٌ عظيمٌ﴾. اذْكروا الْممات والْمعاد والْحساب والْموازين والمحاسبة بيْن يديْ ربّ الْعالمين والثّواب والْعقاب. فمنْ جاء بالْحسنة أثيب عليْها ومنْ جاء بالسّيّئة فليْس له في الْجنان نصيبٌ.

معاشر النّاس، إنّكمْ أكْثر منْ أنْ تصافقوني بكفٍّ واحدٍ، وقدْ أمرني اللّه عزّ وجلّ أنْ آخذ منْ ألْسنتكم الإقْرار بما عقدْت لعليٍّ أمير الْمؤْمنين، ولمنْ جاء بعْده من الأئمّة منّي ومنْه، على ما أعْلمْتكمْ أنّ ذرّيّتي منْ صلْبه. فقولوا بأجْمعكمْ: «إنّا سامعون مطيعون راضون منْقادون لما بلّغْت عنْ ربّنا وربّك في أمْر إمامنا عليٍّ أمير الْمؤْمنين وأمْر ولده منْ صلْبه من الأئمّة. نبايعك على ذلك بقلوبنا وأنْفسنا وألْسنتنا وأيْدينا. على ذلك نحْيى وعليْه نموت وعليْه نبْعث. ولا نغيّر ولا نبدّل، ولا نشكّ ولا نجْحد ولا نرْتاب، ولا نرْجع عن الْعهْد ولا ننْقض الْميثاق. نطيع الله ونطيعك وعليّا أمير الْمؤْمنين والأئمّة الّذين ذكرْتهم منْ ذرّيّتك منْ ولْده بعْده، الْحسن والْحسيْن.... فالْعهْد والْميثاق لهمْ مأْخوذٌ منّا، منْ قلوبنا وأنْفسنا وألْسنتنا وضمايرنا ومصافقة أيدينا. من أدركها بيده وإلاّ فقد أقرّ بلسانه ولا يبغي بذلك بدلا ولا يرى اللّه منْ أنْفسنا عنْه حولا أبدا. نحْن نؤدّي ذلك عنْك، الدّاني والْقاصي منْ أوْلادنا وأهالينا، ونشْهد اللّه بذلك وكفى باللّه شهيدا وأنْت عليْنا به شهيدٌ»....

معاشر النّاس، ما تقولون؟ فانّ اللّه يعْلم كلّ صوْت وخافية كلّ نفْس، ﴿فمن اهْتدى فلنفْسه ومنْ ضلّ فإنّما يضلّ عليْها﴾ ومنْ بايع فإنّما يبايع اللّه، ﴿يد اللّه فوْق أيْديهمْ﴾. معاشر النّاس، فاتّقوا الله وبايعوا عليّا أمير الْمؤْمنين والْحسن والْحسيْن والأئمّة كلمة طيّبة باقية، يهْلك اللّه منْ غدر ويرْحم منْ وفى. ﴿فمنْ نكث فانّما ينْكث على نفْسه ومنْ أوْفى بما عاهد عليْه اللّه فسيؤْتيه أجْرا عظيما﴾.

معاشر النّاس، قولوا الّذي قلْت لكمْ وسلّموا على عليٍّ بامْرة الْمؤْمنين، وقولوا: ﴿سمعْنا وأطعْنا غفْرانك ربّنا وإليْك الْمصير﴾، وقولوا: ﴿الْحمْد للّه الّذي هدانا لهذا وما كنّا لنهْتدي لوْلا أنْ هدانا اللّه﴾.

معاشر النّاس، إنّ فضائل عليّ بْن أبي طالب عنْد اللّه عزّ وجلّ ـ وقدْ أنْزلها في الْقرآن ـ أكْثر منْ أنْ أحْصيها في مقامٍ واحد، فمنْ أنْبأكمْ بها وعرّفها فصدّقوه. معاشر النّاس، منْ يطع اللّه ورسوله وعليّا والأئمّة الّذين ذكرْتهمْ فقدْ فاز فوْزا عظيما. معاشر النّاس، السّابقون إلى مبايعته وموالاته والتّسْليم عليْه بإمْرة الْمؤْمنين أولئك هم الْفائزون في جنّات النّعيم. معاشر النّاس، قولوا ما يرْضى اللّه به عنْكمْ من الْقوْل، فإنْ تكْفروا أنْتمْ ومنْ في الأرْض جميعا فلنْ يضرّ اللّه شيْئا. اللّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِلْمُؤْمِنینَ بِما أَدَّیتُ وَأَمَرْتُ وَاغْضِبْ عَلَی الْجاحِدینَ الْکافِرینَ، وَالْحَمْدُ للّه‏ِِ رَبِّ الْعالَمینَ.


All Praise is due to Allah Who is Exalted in His Unity, Near in His Uniqueness, Sublime in His Authority, Magnanimous in His Dominance. He knows everything; He subdues all creation through His might and evidence. He is Praised always and forever, Glorified and has no end. He begins and He repeats, and to Him every matter is referred. Allah is the Creator of everything; He dominates with His power the earth and the heavens. Holy, He is, and Praised, the Lord of the angels and of the spirits. His favours overwhelm whatever He creates, and He is the Mighty over whatever He initiates. He observes all eyes while no eye can observe Him. He is Generous, Clement, Patient. His mercy encompasses everything, and so is His giving. He never rushes His revenge, nor does He hasten the retribution they deserve. He comprehends what the breast conceals and what the conscience hides. No inner I thought can be concealed from Him, nor does He confuse one with another. He encompasses everything, dominates everything, and subdues everything. Nothing is like Him. He initiates the creation from nothing; He is everlasting, living, sustaining in the truth; there is no god but He, the Omnipotent, the Wise One. He is greater than can be conceived by visions, while He conceives all visions, the Eternal, the Knowing. None can describe Him by seeing Him, nor can anyone find out how He is, be it by his intellect or by a spoken word except through what leads to Him, the Sublime, the Mighty that He is.

I testify that He is Allah, the One Who has filled time with His Holiness, the One Whose Light overwhelms eternity, Who effects His will without consulting anyone; there is no partner with Him in His decisions, nor is He assisted in running His affairs. He shaped what He made without following a preexisting model, and He created whatever He created without receiving help from anyone, nor did doing so exhaust Him nor frustrated His designs. He created, and so it was, and He initiated, and it became visible. So He is Allah, the One and Only God, the One Who does whatever He does extremely well. He is the Just One Who never oppresses, the most Holy to Whom all affairs are referred. I further testify that He is Allah before Whom everything is humbled, to Whose Greatness everything is humiliated, and to Whose Dignity everything submits. He is the King of every domain and the One Who places planets in their orbits. He controls the movements of the sun and of the moon, each circles till a certain time[1]. "He winds the night over the day, and winds the day over the night"[2], "seeking it incessantly"[3]. He splits the spine of every stubborn tyrant and annihilates every mighty devil.

Never has there been any opponent opposing Him nor a peer assisting Him. He is Independent; "He never begets nor is He begotten, • nor has He any equal"[4]. He is One God, the Glorified Lord. His will is done; His word is the law. He knows, so He takes account. He causes death and gives life. He makes some poor and others rich. He causes some to smile and others to cry .He brings some nearer to Him while distancing others from Him. He withholds and He gives. The domain belongs to Him and so is all the Praise. In His hand is all goodness, and He can do anything at all. "He lets the night cover the day and the day cover the night"[5]; there is no god but He, the Sublime, the oft-Forgiving One. He responds to the supplication; He gives generously; He computes the breath; He is the Lord of the jinns and of mankind, the One Whom nothing confuses, nor is He annoyed by those who cry for His help, nor is He fed-up by those who persist. He safeguards the righteous against sinning, and He enables the winners to win. He is the Master of the faithful, the Lord of the Worlds Who deserves the appreciation of all those whom He created and is praised no matter what.

I praise Him and always thank Him for the ease He brings me and for the constriction, in hardship and in prosperity, and I believe in Him, in His angels, in His Books and messengers. I listen to His Command and I obey, and I initiate the doing of whatever pleases Him, and I submit to His decree hoping to acquire obedience to Him and fear of His penalty, for He is Allah against Whose designs nobody should feel secure, nor should anyone ever fear His "oppression." I testify, even against my own soul, that I am His servant, and I bear witness that he is my Lord. I convey what He reveals to me, being cautious lest I should not do it, so a catastrophe from Him would befall upon me, one which none can keep away, no matter how great his design may be and how sincere his friendship. There is no god but He, for He has informed me that if I do not convey what He has just revealed to me in honor of' Ali in truth, I will not have conveyed His Message at all, and He, the Praised and the Exalted One, has guaranteed for me to protect me from the (evil) people, and He is Allah, the One Who suffices, the Sublime. He has just revealed to me the following (verse): "In The Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. O Messenger! Convey what has (just) been revealed to you (with regard to 'Ali), and if you do not do so, you will not have conveyed His Message at all, and Allah shall Protect you from (evil) people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people"[6].

O people! I have not committed any shortcoming in conveying what Allah Almighty revealed to me, and I am now going to explain to you the reason behind the revelation of this verse: Three times did Gabriel command me on behalf of the Peace, my Lord, Who is the source of all peace, to thus make a stand in order to inform everyone, black and white, that: 'Ali b. Abi Talib is my Brother, Wasi, and successor over my nation and the Imam after me, the one whose status to me is like that of Aaron to Moses except there will be no prophet after me, and he is your master next only to Allah and to His Messenger, and Allah has already revealed to me the same in one of the fixed verses of His Book saying, "Your Master is Allah and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay zakat even as they bow down"[7], and, Ali b. Abi Talib the one who keeps up prayers, who pays zakat even as he bows down, seeking to please Allah, the Sublime, the Almighty, on each and every occasion. I asked Gabriel to plead to the Peace to excuse me from having to convey such a message to you, O people! Due to my knowledge that the pious are few while the hypocrites are many, and due to those who will blame me, and due to the trickery of those who ridicule Islam and whom Allah described in His Book as "saying with their tongues contrarily to what their hearts conceal"[8], thinking lightly of it, while it is with Allah magnanimous, and due to the abundance of their harm to me, so much so that they called me "ears" and claimed that I am so because of being so much in his (Ali's) company, always welcoming him, loving him and being so much pleased with him till Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime One, revealed in this regard the verse saying, "and there are some of them who harm the (feelings of the) Prophet and say: He is an ear. Say: One who listens is good for you; He believes in Allah and testifies to the conviction of the believers"[9]. Had I wished to name those who have called me so, I would have called them by their names, and I would have pointed them out. I would have singled them out and called them by what they really are, but I, by Allah, am fully aware of their affairs. Yet despite all of that, Allah insisted that I should convey what He has just revealed to me in honor of Ali.

Then the Prophet recited the following verse:

"O Messenger! Convey what has (just) been revealed to you (with regard to 'Ali), and if you do not do so, you will not have conveyed His Message at all, and Allah shall protect you from (evil) people"[10].

O people! Comprehend (the implications of) what I have just said, and again do comprehend it, and be (further) informed that Allah has installed him (Ali) as your Master and Imam, obligating the Muhajirun and the Ansar‎ and those who follow them in goodness to obey him, and so must everyone who lives in the desert or in the city, who is a non-Arab or an Arab, who is a free man or a slave, who is young or old, white or black, and so should everyone who believes in His Unity. His decree shall be carried out. His (Ali's) word is binding; his command is obligating; cursed is whoever opposes him, blessed with mercy is whoever follows him and believes in him, for Allah has already forgiven him and forgiven whoever listens to him and obeys him.

O people! This is the last stand I make in such a situation; so, listen and obey, and submit to the Command of Allah, your Lord, for Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime One, is your Master and Lord, then next to Him is His Messenger and Prophet who is now addressing you, then after me 'Ali is your Master and Imam according to the Command of Allah, your Lord, then the lmams from among my progeny, his offspring, till the Day you meet Allah and His Messenger. Nothing is permissible except what is deemed so by Allah, His Messenger, and they (the Imams), and nothing is prohibitive except what is deemed so by Allah and His Messenger and they (the Imams). Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime One, has made me acquainted with what is permissible and what is prohibitive, and I have conveyed to you what my Lord has taught me of His Book, of what it decrees as permissible or as prohibitive. O people! Prefer him (Ali) over all others! There is no knowledge except that Allah has divulged it to me, and all the knowledge I have learned I have divulged to Imam al-Muttaqin (leader of the righteous), and there is no knowledge (that I know) except that I divulged it to Ali, and he is "al-Imam al-Mubin" (the evident Imam)[11].

O people! Do not abandon him, nor should you flee away from him, nor should you be too arrogant to not accept his authority, for he is the one who guides to righteousness and who acts according to it. He defeats falsehood and prohibits others from acting according to it, accepting no blame from anyone while seeking to please Allah. He is the first to believe in Allah and in His Messenger; none preceded him as such. and he is the one who offered his life as a sacrifice for the Messenger of Allah and who was in the company of the Messenger of Allah while no other man was. He is the first of all people to offer prayers and the first to worship Allah with me. I ordered him, on behalf of Allah, to sleep in my bed, and he did, offering his life as a sacrifice for my sake. O people! Prefer him (over all others), for Allah has preferred him, and accept him, for Allah has appointed him (as your leader). O people! He is an Imam appointed by Allah, and Allah shall never accept the repentance of anyone who denies his authority, nor shall He forgive him; this is a must decree from Allah never to do so to anyone who opposes him, and that He shall torment him with a most painful torment for all time to come, for eternity; so, beware lest you should oppose him and thus enter "the fire the fuel of which is the people and the stones prepared for the unbelievers"[12].

O people! By Allah! All past prophets and messengers conveyed the glad tiding of my advent, and I, by Allah, am the seal of the prophets and of the messengers and the argument against all beings in the heavens and on earth. Anyone who doubts this commits apostasy similar to that of the early jahiliyya, and anyone who doubts anything of what I have just said doubts everything which has been revealed to me, and anyone who doubts any of the Imams doubts all of them, and anyone who doubts us shall be lodged in the fire. O people! Allah, the most Exalted and the Almighty, has bestowed this virtue on me out of His kindness towards Ali and as a boon to Ali and there is no god but He; to Him all praise belongs in all times, for eternity, and in all circumstances. O people! Prefer Ali (over all others), for he is the very best of all people after me, be they males or females, so long as Allah sends down His sustenance, so long as there are beings. Cursed and again cursed, condemned and again condemned, is anyone who does not accept this statement of mine and who does not agree to it. Gabriel himself has informed me of the same on behalf of Allah Almighty Who he said (in Gabriel's words), "Anyone who antagonizes Ali and refuses to accept his wilayat shall incur My curse on him and My wrath." "and let every soul consider what it sends ahead for tomorrow, and be wary of Allah.",[13] -in his opposition "lest a foot should slip after its stability"[14]- "Allah is fully aware of all what you do"[15]

O people! He (Ali) is the "janb Allah" (duty to Allah) mentioned in the Book of Allah, the Sublime One, The Almighty, forewarning his (Ali's) adversaries, says, "Lest a soul should say: O woe to me for what I fell short of my duty to Allah".[16]

O people! Study the Qur'an and comprehend its verses, look into its fixed verses and do not follow what is similar thereof, for by Allah, none shall explain to you what it forbids you from doing, nor clarify its exegesis, other than the one whose hand I am taking and whom I am lifting to me, the one whose arm I am taking and whom I am lifting, so that I may enable you to understand that: Whoever among you takes me as his master, this, Ali is his master, and he is Ali b. Abi Talib, my Brother and wasi, and his appointment as your wali is from Allah, the Sublime, the Exalted One, a commandment which He revealed to me.

O people! Ali and the good ones from among my offspring from his loins are the Lesser Weight, while the Qur'an is the Greater One: each one of them informs you of and agrees with the other. They shall never part till they meet me at the Pool (of Kawthar). They are the Trustees of Allah over His creation, the rulers on His earth.

Indeed now I have performed my duty and conveyed the Message. Indeed you have heard what I have said and explained. Indeed Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, has said, and so have I on behalf of Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, that there is no Amir al-Mu'minin (Commander of the Faithful) save this brother of mine; no authority over a believer is permissible after me except to him."

Then the Prophet patted Ali's arm, lifting him up. Since the time when the Messenger of Allah ascended the pulpit, Amir al-Mu'minin was one pulpit step below where the Messenger of Allah had seated himself on his pulpit. As Ali was on his (Prophet's) right side, one pulpit step lower, now they both appeared to the gathering to be on the same level; the Prophet lifted him up. The Prophet then raised his hands to the heavens in supplication while Ali's leg was touching the knee of the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet continued his sermon thus:

O people! This is Ali, my Brother, wasi (executor), the one who comprehends my knowledge, and my successor over my nation, over everyone who believes in me. He is the one entrusted with explaining the Book of Allah, the most Exalted One, the Sublime, and the one who invites people to His path. He is the one who does whatever pleases Him, fighting His enemies, befriending His friends who obey Him, prohibiting disobedience to Him. He is the successor of the Messenger of Allah and Amir al-Mu'minin (Commander of the Faithful), the man assigned by Allah to guide others, killer of the Nakithun and Qasitun and Mariqun by the command of Allah.

Allah says, "My Word shall not be changed,"[17] by the command of my Lord, I say, O Allah! Befriend whoever befriends him (Ali) and be the enemy of whoever antagonizes him; support whoever supports him and abandon whoever abandons him; curse whoever disavows him, and let Your Wrath descend on whoever usurps his right. O Lord! You revealed a verse in honor of Ali, Your wali, in its explanation and to effect Your own appointment of him this very day did You say, "This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor on you, and chosen for you Islam as a religion"[18] and said, "Indeed, with Allah religion is Islam"[19] and said, "and whoever desires a religion other than Islam, it shall not be accepted from him, and in the hereafter he shall be one of the losers".[20] O Allah! I implore You to testify that I have conveyed (Your Message).

O people! Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, has perfected your religion through his (Ali's) Imamate; so, whoever rejects him as his Imam or rejects those of my offspring from his loins who assume the same status (as lmams) till the Day of Judgment when they shall all be displayed before Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, these are the ones whose (good) deeds shall be nil and void in the life of this world and in the hereafter, and in the fire shall they be lodged forever, "their torture shall not be decreased, nor shall they be given a respite".[21]

O people! Here is Ali, the one who has supported me more than anyone else among you, the one who most deserves my gratitude, the one who is closest of all of you to me and the one who is the very dearest to me. Both Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, and I are pleased with him, and no verse of the Holy Qur'an expressing Allah's Pleasure except that he is implied therein, nor has any verse of praise been revealed in the Qur'an except that he is implied therein, nor has the Lord testified to Paradise in the (Qur'anic) Chapter al-Insan, nor was this Chapter revealed except in his praise. O people! He is the one who supports the religion of Allah, who argues on behalf of the Messenger of Allah. He is the pious, the pure, the guide, the one rightly guided. Your Prophet is the best of all prophets, and your wasi is the best of all wasis, and his offspring are the best of wasis. O people! Each prophet's progeny is from his own loins whereas mine is from the loins of Amir al-Mu'minin, Ali.

O people! Iblis caused Adam to be dismissed from the garden through envy; so, do not envy him lest your deeds should be voided and lest your feet should slip away, for Adam was sent down to earth after having committed only one sin, and he was among the elite of Allah's creation. How, then, will be your case, and you being who you are, and among you are enemies of Allah? Indeed, none hates Ali except a wretch, and none accepts Ali's wilayat except a pious person. None believes in him except a sincere mu'min, and in honor of, Ali was the Chapter of al-Asr (Q 103) revealed, I swear to it by Allah: "In the Name of Allah, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful. By Time! Indeed man is in loss, except those who have faith and do righteous deeds, and enjoin one another to [follow] the truth, and enjoin one another to patience".

O people! I have sought Allah to be my Witness and have conveyed my Message to you, "and the Messenger is obligated only to clearly convey (his Message)"[22]. O people! "Be wary of Allah with the wariness due to Him and do not die except as Muslims"[23]. O people! Believe in Allah and his Messenger and the light that has been sent down with him, "before We alter faces then turn them on their backs or curse them as We cursed the violators of the Sabbath"[24]. By Allah! Redid not imply anyone in this verse except a certain band of my sahaba whom I know by name and by lineage, and I have been ordered (by my Lord) to pardon them; so, let each person deal with Ali according to what he finds in his heart of love or of hatred. O people! The light from Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, flows through me then through 'Ali b. Abi Talib then in the progeny that descends from him till al-Qa'im al-Mahdi (the guided uriser), who shall effect the justice of Allah, and who will take back any right belonging to us because Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, made us hujjat over those who take us lightly, the stubborn ones, those who act contrarily to our word, who are treacherous, who are sinners, who are oppressors, who are usurpers, from the entire world.

O people! I warn you that I am the Messenger of Allah; messengers before me have already passed away; so, should I die or should I be killed, are you going to turn on your heels? "and whoever turns on his heels shall not harm Allah in the least, and Allah shall reward those who are grateful"[25], those who persevere. 'Ali is surely the one described with perseverance and gratitude, then after him are my offspring from his loins.

O people! Do not think that you are doing me a favor by your accepting Islam. Nay! Do not think that you are doing Allah such a favor lest He should void your deeds, lest His wrath should descend on you, lest He should try you with a flame of fire and brass; surely your Lord is ever-watchful.

O people! There shall be after me "Imams who shall invite people to the fire, and they shall not be helped on the Day of Judgment"[26]. O people! Allah and I are both clear of them. O people! They and their supporters and followers shall be in the lowest rung of the fire; "miserable, indeed, is the resort of the arrogant ones"[27]. Indeed, these are the folks of the sahifa [28]; so, let each one of you look into his sahifa!

This reference to the sahifa has been overlooked by most people with the exception of a small band.

O people! I am calling for it to be an Imamate and a succession confined to my offspring till the Day of Judgment, and I have conveyed only what I have been commanded (by my Lord) to convey to drive the argument home against everyone present or absent and on everyone who has witnessed or who has not, who is already born or he is yet to be born; therefore, let those present here convey it to those who are absent, and let the father convey it to his son, and so on till the Day of Judgment. And they shall make the Imamate after me a property, a usurpation; may Allah curse the usurpers who usurp, and it is then "We shall soon make Ourselves unoccupied for you, O you notable two!"[29] and "there will be unleashed upon you a flash of fire and a smoke; then you will not be able to help one another"[30]. O people! Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, is not to leave you "in your present state, until He has separated the bad ones from the good. Allah will not acquaint you with the Unseen"[31]. O people! There shall be no town that falsifies except that Allah shall annihilate it on account of its falsehood before the Day of Judgment, and He shall give al-lmam al-Mahdi (a) authority over it, and surely Allah's promise is true. O people! Most of the early generations before you have strayed, and by Allah, He surely annihilated the early generations, and He shall annihilate the later ones. Allah Almighty has said, "Did We not destroy the former generations? Then did We follow them up with later ones. Even thus shall We deal with the guilty. Woe on that Day to the rejecters!"[32].

O people! Allah has ordered me to do and not to do, and I have ordered 'Ali to do and not to do, so he learned what should be done and what should not; therefore. you should listen to his orders so that you may be safe, and you should obey him so that you may be rightly guided. Do not do what he forbids you from doing so that you may acquire wisdom. Agree with him, and do not let your paths be different from his. O people! I am al-Sirat al-Mustaqim (the Straight Path) of Allah whom He commanded you to follow, and it is after me Ali then my offspring from his loins, the Imams of Guidance: They guide to the truth and act accordingly.

Then the Prophet recited the entire text of Surat al-Fatiha and commented by saying:

It is in my honor that this (sura) was revealed, including them (the Imams) specifically; they are "the friends of Allah for whom there shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve"[33]; "truly the Party of Allah are the winners"[34]. Indeed, it is their enemies who are the impudent ones, the deviators, the brethren of Satan; "who inspire each other with flashy words, deceptively"[35]. Indeed, their (Imams') friends are the ones whom Allah, the Exalted One, the Great, mentions in His Book saying, "You shall not find a people who believe in Allah and in the latter Day befriending those who act in opposition to Allah and to His Prophet, even though they may be their own fathers or sons or brothers or kinsfolk; these are they into whose hearts He has impressed conviction"[36]. Indeed, their (Imams') friends are the mu'mins (believers) whom Allah, the Exalted One, the Sublime, describes as: "Those who believe and do not mix up their faith with iniquity, those are the ones who shall have the security, and they are the rightly guided"[37]. Indeed, their friends are those who believed and never doubted. Indeed, their friends are the ones who shall enter Paradise in peace and security; the angels shall receive them with welcome saying, "Peace be to you! You are welcome! Enter it to remain [forever]"[38]. Indeed, their friends shall be rewarded with Paradise where they shall be sustained without having to account for anything.[39]

Indeed, their enemies are the ones who shall be hurled into the fire. Indeed, their enemies are the ones who shall hear the exhalation of hell as it increases in intensity, and they shall see it sigh. Indeed, their enemies are the ones thus described by Allah: "every time that a nation enters [hell], it will curse its sister [nation]. When they all rejoin in it, the last of them will say about the first of them, 'Our Lord, it was they who led us astray; so give them a double punishment of the Fire.' He will say, 'It is double for each [of you], but you do not know.'"[40]. Indeed, their enemies are the ones whom Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, describes thus: "Whenever a group is thrown in it, its keepers will ask them, 'Did there not come to you any warner?' • They will say, 'Yes, a warner did come to us, but we impugned [him] and said, 'Allah did not send down anything; you are only in great error.' • And they will say, 'Had we listened or applied reason, we would not have been among inmates of the Blaze.' • Thus they will admit their sin. So away with the inmates of the Blaze!"[41]. Indeed, their friends are "those who fear their Lord in secret there will be forgiveness and a great reward"[42]. O people! What a difference it is between the fire and the great reward! O people! Our enemy is the one whom Allah censures and curses, whereas our friend is everyone praised and loved by Allah.

O people! I am the warner and Ali is the one who brings glad tidings. O people! I am the one who warns while 'Ali is the guide.[43] O people! I am a Prophet and Ali is the successor. O people! I am a Messenger and Ali is the Imam and the wasi after me, and so are the Imams after him from among his offspring. Indeed, I am their father, and they shall descend from his loins. Indeed, the seal of the lmams from among us is al-Qa'im al-Mahdi. He, indeed, is the one who shall come out so that the creed may prevail. He, indeed, is the one who shall seek revenge against the oppressor. He, indeed, is the one who conquers the forts and demolishes them. He, indeed, is the one who subdues every tribe from among the people of polytheism and the one to guide it. He is the one who shall seek redress for all friends of Allah. He is the one who supports the religion of Allah. He ever derives (his knowledge) from a very deep ocean. He shall identify each man of distinction by his distinction and every man of ignorance by his ignorance. He shall be the choicest of Allah's beings and the chosen one. He is the heir of all (branches of) knowledge, the one who encompasses every perception. He conveys on behalf of his Lord, the Exalted and the Sublime, who points out His miracles. He is the wise, the one endowed with wisdom, the one on whom (divine) authority is vested. Glad tidings of him have been conveyed by past generations, yet he is the one who shall remain as a hujja, and there shall be no hujja after him nor any right except with him, nor any light except with him. None, indeed, shall subdue him, nor shall he ever be vanquished. He is the friend of Allah on His earth, the judge over His creatures, the custodian of what is evident and what is hidden of His.

O people! I have explained (everything) for you and enabled you to comprehend it, and this Ali shall after me explain everything to you. At the conclusion of my khutba, I shall call on you to shake hands with me to swear your allegiance to him and to recognize his authority, then to shake hands with him after you have shaken hands with me. I had, indeed, sworn allegiance to Allah, and Ali had sworn allegiance to me, and I on behalf of Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, I require you to swear the oath of allegiance to him, "Indeed those who swear allegiance to you, swear allegiance only to Allah: the hand of Allah is above their hands. So whosoever breaks his oath, breaks it only to his own detriment, and whoever fulfills the covenant he has made with Allah, He will give him a great reward."[44].

O people! The pilgrimage (hajj) and the 'umra are among Allah's rituals "so whoever makes hajj to the House, or performs the ʿumrah, there is no sin upon him to circuit between them [Safa and Marwa]. Should anyone do good of his own accord, then Allah is indeed appreciative, all-knowing."[45]. O people! Perform your pilgrimage to the House, for no members of a family went there except that they became wealthy, and receive glad tidings! None failed to do so except that their lineage was cut-off and were impoverished. O people! No believer stands at a mawqif [i.e. 'Arafat, Mash'ar, Mina] except that Allah forgives his past sins till then; so, once his pilgrimage is over, he resumes his deeds. O people! Pilgrims are assisted, and their expenses shall be replenished, and Allah never suffers the rewards of the doers of good to be lost. O people! Perform your pilgrimage to the House by perfecting your religion and by delving into fiqh (understanding religious knownledge), and do not leave the sacred places except after having repented and abandoned (the doing of anything prohibited). O people! Uphold prayers and pay the zakat as Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, commanded you; so, if time lapses and you were short of doing so or you forgot, Ali is your wali and he will explain for you. He is the one whom Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, appointed for you after me as the custodian of His creation. He is from me and I am from him, and he and those who will succeed him from my progeny shall inform you of anything you ask them about, and they shall clarify whatever you do not know.

Halal and haram things are more than I can count for you now or explain, for a commandment to enjoin what is permissible and a prohibition from what is not permissible are both on the same level, so I was ordered (by my Lord) to take your oath of allegiance and to make a covenant with you to accept what I brought you from Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, with regards to Ali Amir al-Mu'minin and to the wasis after him who are from me and from him, a standing Imamate whose seal is al-Mahdi till the Day he meets Allah Who decrees and Who judges. O people! I never refrained from informing you of everything permissible or prohibitive; so, do remember this and safeguard it and advise each other to do likewise; do not alter it; do not substitute it with something else. I am now repeating what I have already said: Uphold the prayers and pay the zakat and enjoin righteousness and forbid abomination. The peak of enjoining righteousness is to resort to my speech and to convey it to whoever did not attend it and to order him on my behalf to accept it and to (likewise) order him not to violate it, for it is an order from Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, and there is no knowledge of enjoining righteousness nor prohibiting abomination except that it is with an infallible Imam.

O people! The Qur'an informs you that the Imams after him are his (Ali's) descendants, and I have already informed you that they are from me and from him, for Allah says in His Book, "And He made it a lasting word among his posterity so that they may come back [to the right path]."[46] while I have said: "You shall not stray as long as you uphold both of them (simultaneously)."[47]

O people! (Uphold) piety, (uphold) piety, and be forewarned of the Hour as Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, has said, "surely the violence of the Hour is a grievous thing"[48]. Remember death, resurrection, the judgment, the scales, and the account before the Lord of the Worlds, and (remember) the rewards and the penalty. So whoever does a good deed shall be rewarded for it, and whoever commits a sin shall have no place in the Gardens.

O people! You are more numerous than (it is practical) to shake hands with me all at the same time, and Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, commanded me to require you to confirm what authority I have vested on Ali Amir al-Mu'minin and to whoever succeeds him of the Imams from me and from him, since I have just informed you that my offspring are from his loins. You, therefore, should say in one voice: "We hear, and we obey; we accept and we are bound by what you have conveyed to us from our Lord and yours with regard to our Imam Ali Amir al-Mu'minin, and to the Imams, your sons from his loins. We swear the oath of allegiance to you in this regard with our hearts, with our souls, with our tongues, with our hands. According to it shall we live, and according to it shall we die, and according to it shall we be resurrected. We shall not alter anything or substitute anything with another, nor shall we doubt nor deny nor suspect, nor shall we violate our covenant nor abrogate the pledge. You admonished us on behalf of Allah with regard to Ali Amir al-Mu'minin, and to the Imams whom you mentioned to be from your offspring from among his descendants after him: al-Hassan and al-Hussain and to whoever is appointed (as such) by Allah after them. The covenant and the pledge are taken from us, from our hearts, from our souls, from our tongues, from our conscience, from our hands. Whoever does so by his handshake, it shall be so, or otherwise testified to it by his tongue, and we do not seek any substitute for it, nor shall Allah see our souls deviating there from. We shall convey the same on your behalf to anyone near and far of our offspring and families, and we implore Allah to testify to it, and surely Allah suffices as the Witness and you, too, shall testify for us.

O people! What are you going to say?! Allah knows every sound and the innermost of every soul; "Whoever chooses the right guidance, it is for his own soul that he is rightly guided, and whoever strays, it is only to its detriment that he goes astray"[49]. O people! Swear the oath of allegiance to Allah, and swear it to me, and swear it to Ali Amir al-Mu'minin, and to al-Hassan and al-Hussain and to the Imams from their offspring in the life of this world and in the hereafter, a word that shall always remain so. Allah shall annihilate anyone guilty of treachery and be merciful on everyone who remains true to his word: "Whoever reneges (from his oath), he reneges only to the harm of his own soul, and whoever fulfills what he has covenanted with Allah, He will grant him a mighty reward"[50].

O people! Repeat what I have just told you to, and greet Ali with the title of authority of "Amir al-Mu'minin" and say: "We hear, and we obey, O Lord! Your forgiveness (do we seek), and to You is the eventual course"[51], and you should say: "All praise is due to Allah Who guided us to this, and we would not have found the way had it not been for Allah Who guided us"[52].

O people! The merits of Ali b. Abi Talib with Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, the merits which are revealed in the Qur'an, are more numerous than I can recount in one speech; so, whoever informs you of them and defines them for you, you should believe him. O people! Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger and Ali and the Imams to whom I have already referred shall attain a great victory. O people! Those foremost from among you who swear allegiance to him and who pledge to obey him and who greet him with the greeting of being the Commander of the Faithful are the ones who shall win the Gardens of Felicity. O people! Say what brings you the Pleasure of Allah, for if you and all the people of the earth disbelieve, it will not harm Allah in the least. O Lord! Forgive the believers through what I have conveyed, and let Your Wrath descend on those who renege, the apostates, and all Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.

Notes of Al-Ghadir Sermon Text

1. Refers to Quran 35:13
2. Quran 39:5
3. Quran 7:54
4. Quran 112:3-4
5. Quran 35:13
6. Qur'an 5:67
7. Qur'an 5:55
8. Quran 48:11
9. Qur'an 9:61
10. Qur'an 5:67
11. Allah mentions in Surat Ya-Sin: "... and everything We have computed is in (the knowledge of) an evident Imam" (Qur'an 36:12)
12. Quran 2:24
13. Qur'an 59:18
14. Qur'an 16:94
15. Qur'an 59:18
16. Qur'an 39:56
17. Qur'an 50:29
18. Quran 5:3
19. Quran 3:19
20. Qur'an 3:85
21. Qur'an 2:162
22. Quran 24:54
23. Qur'an 3:102
24. Qur'an, 4:47
25. Quran 3:144
26. Quran 28:41
27. Quran 16:29
28. a covenant written by a number of very prominent Muslims, some of whom are sanctified by some Muslims, pledging to assassinate the Prophet; it was written and signed then buried at one of the walls of the Ka'ba
29. Quran 55:31
30. Quran 55:35
31. Quran 3:179
32. Qur'an, 77: 16-19
33. Quran 10:62
34. Quran 5:56
35. Quran 6:112
36. Qur'an 58:22
37. Qur'an 6:82
38. Quran 39:73
39. Quran 40:40
40. Qur'an 7:38
41. Qur'an 67:8-11
42. Quran 67:12
43. Refers to Quran 13:7, "You are only a warner, and there is a guide for every people."
44. Qur'an 48:10
45. Qur'an 2:158
46. Qur'an 43:28
47. Refers to the hadith al-Thaqalayn
48. Qur'an 22:1
49. Qur'an 17:15
50. Qur'an 48:10
51. Qur'an 2:285
52. Qur'an 7:43


Notes of Al-Ghadir Sermon

1. Bukhari, Tarikh al-kabir, vol. 4, p. 1599; Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-umam, vol. 3, p. 152; Al-Halabi, Al-Sira, vol. 3, p. 360
2. Ibn Hisham, Al-Sira, vol. 2, p. 601
3. Al-Waqidi, Al-Maghazi, vol. 3, p. 1089; Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa l-nihaya, vol. 5, p. 110
4. Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-umam, vol. 3, p. 149
5. Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-umam, vol. 3, p. 152; Al-Halabi, Al-Sira, vol. 3, p. 360
6. Al-Waqidi, Al-Maghazi, vol. 3, p. 1079-1080; Al-Halabi, Al-Sira, vol. 3, p. 289
7. Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-umam, vol. 3, p. 150-152; Ibn Hisham, Al-Sira, vol. 2, p. 603-604
8. Al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, vol. 2, p. 118
9. Al-Hamawi, Mu'jam al-buldan, vol. 2, p. 103
10. Al-Mufid, Tafsir al-Qur'an, vol. 1, p. 184; 'Ayyashi, Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 332
11. Al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, vol. 2, p. 1
12. Ibn Athir, Usd al-ghaba, vol. 5, p. 253; Al-Kulayni, Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 27
13. Al-Baladhuri, Ansab al-ashraf, vol. 2, p. 111; Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 7, p. 349
14. Al-Saduq, Al-Amali, p. 575; Al-Mufid, Aqsam al-mawla, p. 35; Al-Tusi, Al-iqtisad, p. 351; Al-Tusi, Al-Rasa'il, p. 138
15. Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 7, p. 349
16. Ibn Fattal, Rawdat al-wa'izin, vol. 1, p. 9; Al-Tabrisi, Al-Ihtijaj, vol. 1, p. 66; Ibn Tawus, Al-Yaqin, p. 343; 'Alam al-Huda, Nuzhat al-kiram, vol. 1, p. 186
17. Ibn Tawus, Al-Iqbal, p. 454, 456
18. Hilli, Al-'Udad, p. 169; Ibn Tawus, Al-Tahsin, p. 578; Al-Bayadi, Al-Sirat al-mustaqim, vol. 1, p. 301; Ibn Jabur, Nahj al-iman, Sheet 26-34
19. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 40
20. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 158
21. Al-'Asqalani, Fath al-bari, vol. 7, p. 61
22. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 4, p. 370
23. Al-'Asqalani, Al-Isaba, vol. 3, p. 484
24. Ibn Maghazili, Manaqib, vol. 1, p. 66
25. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 5, p. 370
26. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 88
27. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 84
28. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 119; Khatib Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 16, p. 348
29. Ibn Maghazili, Manaqib, vol. 1, p. 54
30. Haythami, Majma' al-zawa'id, vol. 9, p. 136
31. Dulabi, Al-Kuna wa al-asma' , vol. 3, p. 928
32. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 118
33. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 5, p. 366
34. Al-Haythami, Majma' al-zawa'id, vol. 9, p. 107; Ibn Maghazili, Manaqib, vol. 1, p. 112; Ibn Athir, Usd al-ghaba, vol. 3, p. 307
35. Al-Bukhari, Tarikh al-kabir, vol. 1, p. 375
36. Ibn al-Jazari, Asna al-matalib, p. 49
37. Al-Baladhuri, Ansab al-ashraf, vol. 2, p. 108
38. Al-Qunduzi, Yanabi' al-mawadda, vol. 3, p. 369
39. Nasa'i, p. 93
40. Sulaym b. Qays, Kitab Sulaym, p. 321
41. Al-Haskani, Shawahid al-tanzil, vol. 1, p. 201
42. Ibn Fattal, Rawdat al-wa'izin, vol. 1, p. 89; Ibn Tawus, Al-Yaqin, p. 343; 'Alam al-Huda, Nuzhat al-kiram, vol. 1, p. 186
43. Ibn 'Asakir, Tarjimat al-Imam al-Husayn, vol. 2, p. 70
44. Al-Hilli, Al-'Udad, p. 169; Ibn Tawus, Al-Tahsin, p. 578; Al-Bayadi, Al-Sirat al-mustaqim, vol. 1, p. 301; Ibn Jabur, Nahj al-iman, Sheet 26-34
45. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 14-15
46. Al-Razi, Tafsir al-Razi, vol. 12, p. 49
47. Ibn Abi l-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-blagha, vol. 1, p. 13
48. Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 5, p. 209
49. Ibn Sabbagh, Al-Fusul al-muhimma, vol., p. 235
50. Ibn Tawus, Al-Iqbal, p. 454-456
51. Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'ummal, vol. 13, p. 104-105, 131-138, 157-158, 168
52. Ibn Hamza al-Husayni al-Hanafi, Al-Bayan, p. 593
53. Al-Alusi, Ruh al-ma'ani, vol. 6, p. 194
54. Rashid Rida, Al-Minar, vol. 6, p. 384
55. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 6, p. 11
56. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 14-15
57. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 145
58. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 6, p. 59
59. Ibn Tawus, p. 33
60. Al-Hindi, Mir Hamid Husayn
61. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 37, p. 181-182
62. Al-Hurr al-'Amili, vol. 2, p. 200-250
63. Amini, vol. 1, p. 12, 151, 294-322
64. Al-Bahrani, Al-Sayyid Hashim
65. Al-Bahrani, 'Abd Allah, vol. 3, p. 307-327
66. Milani, Sayyid 'Ali, vol. 6-9
67. Al-Taftazani, Shar al-maqasid, vol. 5, p. 272
68. Al-Jurjani, Sharh al-mawaqif, vol. 8, p. 361
69. Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, vol. 5, p. 563
70. Al-Tahawi, Bayan mushkil al-athar, vol. 4, p. 212
71. Hakim al-Nisaburi, Al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 118
72. Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya, vol. 5, p. 209
73. Al-'Asghalani, Fath al-bari, vol. 7, p. 74
74. Haytami, al-Sawa'iq, vol. 1, p. 106
75. Al-Tahawi, Bayan mushkil al-athar, vol. 4, p. 212; Al-Jurjani, Sharh al-Mawaqif, vol. 8, p. 361
76. Al-Waqidi, Al-Maghazi, vol. 3, p. 1079-1080; Al-Halabi, Al-Sira, vol. 3, p. 289
77. Al-Mufid, Aqsam al-mawla, p. 28; Al-Ifsah, p. 32
78. Al-Tusi, Al-Iqtisad, p. 345
79. Al-Hilli, Kashf al-murad, p. 369
80. Al-Razi, Al-Arba'in, vol. 2, p. 283
81. Al-Jurjani, Sharh al-Mawaqif, vol. 8, p. 360-365
82. Al-Taftazani, Sharh al-Maqasid, vol. 5, p. 273-275
83. Al-Jurjani, Sharh al-mawaqif, vol. 8, p. 360-365
84. Al-Taftazani, Sharh al-maqasid, vol. 5, p. 273-275
85. Al-Razi, Al-Arba'in, vol. 2, p. 283
86. Al-Jurjani, Sharh al-mawaqif, vol. 8, p. 360-365
87. Al-Jurjani, Sharh al-Mawaqif, vol. 8, p. 361
88. Al-Razi, Tafsir al-Razi, vol. 29, p. 459
89. Al-Taftazani, Sharh al-Maqasid, vol. 5, p. 273
90. Al-Sharif al-Murtada, Al-Shafi, vol. 2, p. 270
91. Al-Sharif al-Murtada, Al-Shafi, vol. 2, p. 270
92. Al-Razi, Tafsir al-Razi, vol. 29, p. 227
93. Al-Razi, Tafsir al-Razi, vol. 29, p. 227
94. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 624
95. Al-Razi, Al-Arba'in, vol. 2, p. 283
96. Al-Sharif al-Murtada, Al-Shafi, vol. 2, p. 277
97. Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-'Arab, vol. 5, p. 407; Al-Azhari, Tahdhib al-lugha, vol. 15, p. 324-327
98. Al-Fayyumi, Al-Misbah, vol. 1-2, p. 672
99. Ibn Faris, Mu'jam, vol. 6, p. 141
100. Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-'Arab, vol. 15, p. 411; Al-Azhari, Tahdhib al-lugha, vol. 15, p. 322; Al-Turayhi, Majma' al-bahrayn, vol. 1, p. 464-465
101. Al-Tusi, Al-Tibyan, vol. 8, p. 317
102. Al-Baydawi, Anwar al-tanzil, vol. 4, p. 225; Al-Zamakhshari, Al-Kashshaf, vol. 3, p. 523
103. Al-Zamakhshari, Al-Kashshaf, vol. 3, p. 225
104. Al-Razi, Al-Arba'in, vol. 2, p. 283
105. Ibn Athir, Usd al-ghaba, vol. 1, p. 439; Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 7, p. 348-349; Baladhuri, Ansab al-ashraf, vol. 2, p. 108
106. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 657
107. Al-Manawi, Fayd al-ghadir, vol. 6, p. 217
108. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 4, p. 281; Ibn Maghazili, Al-Manaqib, vol. 1, p. 46; Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 7, p. 349
109. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 667
110. Al-Tusi, Al-Iqtisad, p. 351; Al-Sharif al-Radi, Khasa'is al-a'imma, p. 43
111. Al-Sharif al-Radi, Khasa'is al-a'imma, p. 43; Al-Muzaffar, Dala'il al-sidq, vol. 4, p. 340
112. Al-Sharif al-Radi, Khasa'is al-a'imma, p. 43
113. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 3, p. 270
114. Sharif al-Radiy, Khasa'is al-a'imma, p. 43
115. Al-Tabrisi, Al-Ihtijaj, vol. 1, p. 181
116. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 2, p. 51-495
117. Hakim al-Nisaburi, Al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 419
118. Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 5, p. 211
119. Al-Tabrisi, Al-Ihtijaj, vol. 1, p. 181
120. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 33, p. 41
121. Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya, vol. 7, p. 304
122. Al-Saduq, Al-Amali, p. 22; Ibn Qutayba, Al-Imam wa l-siyasa, vol. 1, p. 580
123. Ibn Maghazili, Manaqib, vol. 1, p. 62
124. Al-Saduq, Al-Amali, p. 162
125. Amini, Al-Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 664
126. Al-Qummi, Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 171; Al-Tabrisi, Jawami' al-jami' , vol. 1, p. 343
127. Al-Suyuti, Al-Durr al-manthur, vol. 2, p. 298; Al-'Ayyashi, Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 332
128. Al-'Ayyashi, Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 331; Al-Tabrisi, Majma' al-bayan, vol. 1, p. 334
129. Al-Razi, Tafsir al-Razi, vol. 12, p. 401
130. Al-Razi, Tafsir al-Razi, vol. 12, p. 400-402
131. Al-Bahrani, Kashf al-muhimm, p. 227
132. Tabataba'i, Al-Mizan, vol. 5, p. 181; Makarim, Tafsir-i nimunih, vol. 4, p. 258
133. Al-'Ayyashi, Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 293; Al-Qummi, Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 162; Al-Razi, Tafsir al-Razi, vol. 11, p. 288
134. Al-Suyuti, Al-Durr al-manthur, vol. 2, p. 259
135. Tabataba'i, Al-Mizan, vol. 5, p. 168-175
136. Al-'Ayyashi, Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 293
137. Al-Tabari, Jami' al-bayan, vol. 5, p. 51
138. Tabataba'i, Al-Mizan, vol. 5, p. 284
139. Tabataba'i, Al-Mizan, vol. 5, p. 279
140.  Al-Tabrisi, Majma' al-bayan, vol. 10, p. 530; Al-Qurtubi, Al-Jami' , vol. 19, p. 278; Al-Tha'labi, Al-Kashf wa al-bayan, vol. 10, p. 35


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 Refers to Quran 35:13
Quran 39:5
Quran 7:54
Quran 112:3-4
Quran 35:13
Qur'an 5:67
Qur'an 5:55
Quran 48:11
Qur'an 9:61
Qur'an 5:67
Allah mentions in Surat Ya-Sin: "... and everything We have computed is in (the knowledge of) an evident Imam" (Qur'an 36:12)
Quran 2:24
Qur'an 59:18
Qur'an 16:94
Qur'an 59:18
Qur'an 39:56
Qur'an 50:29
Quran 5:3
Quran 3:19
Qur'an 3:85
Qur'an 2:162
Quran 24:54
Qur'an 3:102
Qur'an, 4:47
Quran 3:144
Quran 28:41
Quran 16:29
a covenant written by a number of very prominent Muslims, some of whom are sanctified by some Muslims, pledging to assassinate the Prophet; it was written and signed then buried at one of the walls of the Ka'ba
Quran 55:31
Quran 55:35
Quran 3:179
Qur'an, 77: 16-19
Quran 10:62
Quran 5:56
Quran 6:112
Qur'an 58:22
Qur'an 6:82
Quran 39:73
Quran 40:40
Qur'an 7:38
Qur'an 67:8-11
Quran 67:12
Refers to Quran 13:7, "You are only a warner, and there is a guide for every people."
Qur'an 48:10
Qur'an 2:158
Qur'an 43:28
Refers to the hadith al-Thaqalayn
Qur'an 22:1
Qur'an 17:15
Qur'an 48:10
Qur'an 2:285
Qur'an 7:43

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