Morteza Motahari was born in Fariman village, 31st January, 1919. His father, Sheikh Mohammad Motahari who had completed his studies in Najaf was one of the leading clergies of Fariman.
Ahlul Bayt News Agency - Morteza Motahari was born in Fariman village, 31st January, 1919. His father, Sheikh Mohammad Motahari who had completed his studies in Najaf was one of the leading clergies of Fariman.
Motahari received his elementary education from his father and then left for Qom to continue his education. He spent 15 years in Qom and enjoyed the teachings of the foremost scholars. During these years, he was attracted by Imam Khomeini’s personality and scientific authority, and enjoyed his company for twelve years.
He left Qom for Tehran in 1952, and was gave lessons in the religious schools of Marvi and Sepahsalar.
During these years, he met many times with Ayatollah Kashani and made acquaintance with Fadaian Eslam group and Seyyed Mojtaba Navvab Safavi.
During 1960-1962, he founded a monthly circle with the cooperation of Mohammad EbrahimAyat, in which hundreds of people would take participation. The circle was called “the Religious Monthly Society” which lasted for two years and a half and about 30 speeches were delivered by scholars from universities and religious schools in it. Later on the speeches were published in three volumes entitled “Goftare Mah” (the speech of the month). The publication of Dastane Rastan (the story of the righteous), which was series of religious stories for children and young adults.
Upon the death of late Borujerdi in the Qom Seminary, the sparks of political activities were formed among the religious authorities. From the beginning, he was among the companions of Imam Khomeini. He was arrested after the uprising of 4th June 1963 along with seventy scholars of Tehran and other cities and was arrested and imprisoned for forty days.
Following the arrest and exile of Imam Khomeini in November (1964), the activities of Ayatollah Motahhari entered a new phase of struggle, and he tried to clarify and deepen the foundation of the Islamic ideology of the Islamic movement of Imam Khomeini. Hence, its advertising activities in traditional academic circles and he tried to make a link and deep relationship between religious intellectuals and university.
In this regard, he founded Hosseinieh e ershad with the cooperation of some religious activists to acquaint the young generation with the principles of religion. He was the manager of Hosseinieh for one year, but he succeeded to absorb a good number of university students to this center during this period.His book, Muhammad, the Seal of Prophets (two volumes) was the product of this work.
In 1968, he resigned from his office because of the sensitivity of the government and ideological difference with some religious intellectuals such as Dr. Ali Shariati. In 1970, he delivered his historical speech against Zionism and subsequently, he was arrested and imprisoned for a while.
Following the closure of Hosseinieh Ershad, Motahari transferred his site to Aljavad, Javid and Arg mosques. However he was forbidden to give speeches in pulpits from 1975.
In 1976, following a fabricated story, Motahari was deprived from teaching in university and he was retired to home. But his efforts did not stop and, despite its many problems je went to Najaf to visit Imam Khomeini and talk about Qom Seminary and the country's political and ideological issues. Upon his return, he founded “the society of Tehran combatant clergies”. He became the leading representative of Imam Khomeini’s thoughts in Iran.
Upon the death of Imam Khomeini’s eldest son, he managed to hold a memorial service for him in the Arg mosque of Tehran. After the migration of Imam Khomeini to Paris, he hurried to visit Imam. Upon his return, his house became the guiding center in the country and its coordination with the imam in Europe. He was charged with the responsibility of forming the “the revolutionary council” by Imam Khomeini. When Bakhtiar was prevented Imam Khomeini entrance to Iran in February 1978, the clerics staged a sit in in the mosque of Tehran Universityto protest against this action. And Ayatollah Motahhari was on the forefront of the clergy. Also he was a member of the Committee to welcome the Imam. He had prepared the welcome message text that was read at the Tehran airport and in front of Imam.
Following the success of the revolution, Motahari was a sympathetic and trustworthy counselor for the Imam. He was also helpful in the formation of revolutionary organs, including “Revolutionary Guards of the Islamic Revolution" .He was hated by the anti-revolutionaries as much as he was favored by the revolutionaries, as all people were aware of his position in the formation of the Islamic revolution.
Therefore, he was assassinated and martyred by Forghan group on 2 May 1979.
Ayatollah Motahari had unique characteristics; the most important was his multifacetedness, as he actively played role in different theoretical and practical scenes. He authored several precious books on different domains, all explaining the pure Islam and enjoying unparalleled accuracy, elegance, clairvoyance, and comprehensiveness.
List of Publications
- Tohid (The oneness of God)
- Adl -e- Elahi
- Ma'ad (The return)
- Hamase -e- Husaini
- Seiry dar nahj al-balagha
- Seiry dar sirey'e a'emeye at-har
- Seiry dar sirey'e nabavi
- Insan -e- Kamel
- Payambar -e- Ommi
- Osool -e Falsafa va ravesh -e- Realism (The principles of Philosophy and the method of Realism)
- Sharh -e- Manzume (A description done by Motahari on Manzume which is an old philosophical poem written by Mulla Hadi Sabzevary)
- Imamat va rahbary
- Dah Goftar (A selection of 10 articles of Motahari)
- Bist Goftar (A selection of 20 articles of Motahari)
- Panzdah Goftar (A selection of 15 articles of Motahari)
- Azadi -e- Ma'navi
- Ashneya'ei ba Quran (Being familiar with Quran)
- Ayande -e- Enghlab -e- Islami (The future of the Islamic Revolution)
- Ehyaye Tafakor -e- Islami
- Akhlagh -e- Jensi
- Islam va niazha -ye- Jahan
- Emdadhaye gheibi dar zendegi -e- bashar
- Ensas va sarenevesht
- Panj maghale
- Ta'lim va tarbiyat dar Islam
- Jazebe va dafe'eye Ali
- Hekmat-ha va andarz-ha
- Khatm -e- Nobowat
- Khadamat -e- moteghabel -e- Islam va Iran
- Dastan -e- Rastan
- Darshaye Asfar
- Shesh maghale
- Erfan -e- Hafez
- Elale gerayesh be madigary
- Falsafe -ye- Akhlagh
- Falsafe -ye- Tarikh
- Ghiam va enghelab -e- Mahdi
- Koliyat -e- olume Islami
- Goft va gooye chahar shanbe
- Masaleye Hejab
- Masaleye Reba
- Masaleye Shenakht
- Maghalate falsafi (A selection of Philosophical articles written by Motahari)
- Moghadameyi bar jahanbiniye Islami (Consists of 6 different books written about this subject)
- Nabard -e- hagh va batel
- Nezam -e- hoghoghe zan dar Islam
- Nazari bar nezame eghtesadiye Islam
- Naghdi bar Marxism
- Nehzat-haye Islami dar 100 sale akhir
- Vela'ha va velayat-ha
- Ayineye Jam (Hafez poetic book with Motahari's notations on it)
The Iranian Teacher’s Day is celebrated on May 2 (Ordibehesht 12, in Iranian Calendar), commemorating the martyrdom day of an Iranian eminent philosopher Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari on May 2, 1979.
Although Murtaza Motahhari wrote several books on Islam, Iran, and historical topics, his emphasis was on teaching rather than writing.
Finally, after years of endeavor in political, religious, and educational fields, Morteza Motahhari was assassinated on May 2, 1979 by a member of the Forqan Group.
Therefore, to honor his memory and name, the day of his martyrdom was called as “Teacher Day”.
Imam Khomeini Advised Academics to Explore Motahhari Works
Imam Khomeini (R) the founder of the Islamic Republic advised scholars and academics to explore the works of Martyr Morteza Motahhari in order to gain access to pure and dynamic Islamic thought and teachings.
The great Imam recommended the Islamic scholars at seminaries and universities to pay special attention to Motahhari academic and spiritual legacy.
Imam emphasized that most of his academic works were of great value and reflected the real teachings and stances of Islam on a various range of topics.
Motahhari was right-hand and reliable advisor to Imam and is considered among the important figures who contributed to victory of the Islamic revolution.
He stood by Imam during tough years of struggle against the Western imperialism and the Shah’s despotic monarchy.
Motahhari wrote several books on Islam, jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, logic, and historical topics.
Several of his lectures and speeches were classified and compiled into books. His martyrdom anniversary day is marked as Teacher’s day across Iran and among religious circles across the globe
Motahhari opposed materialistic schools and other deviant groups who present inaccurate ideas with Islamic emblems under the pretext and banner of Islam.
The great Imam believed that Motahhari’s thought could strengthen the pillars of revolution and protect its legacy.